SCLOA - Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SCLOA - Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour Deck (11):
1

cultural dimension

factors that can be placed on a philosophical continuum

2

characteristics of individualistic cultures

- focus on self > others
- individual autonomy and self-expression encouraged
- people are viewed as unique individuals

3

characteristics of collectivistic cultures

- focus on others > self
- individual autonomy and self-expression not encouraged.

4

effect of individualist/collectivist cultures on conformity

Smith and Bond (1993):
- meta-analysis of 31 conformity studies
- conformity was lower among participants from individualist cultures (North America and NW Europe) at 25%
- collectivist cultures (Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America) had higher conformity rates at 37%

Supporting study: Berry (1967)

5

Berry (1967)

- replicated Asch (1951) with Temne people and Inuits
- found that Temne people conformed significantly more
- likely due to the cooperative nature of their economy
- as the Temne must survive on a single crop
- so social agreement is important for the Temne
- in contrast, Inuits forage for resources individually

6

effect of individualist/collectivist cultures on conflict resolution

- generally individualist cultures prefer to face conflict head-on (dominating conflict resolution style)
- while collectivist cultures avoid conflict (conflict-avoidant resolution style)

Supporting study: Wei et al. (2001)

7

Wei et al. (2001)

- 600 managers in Singapore were randomly surveyed
- participants included Japanese, Americans, and Chinese-Singaporeans working in MNCs, and Chinese-Singaporeans in local firms
- found that Americans and a minority of Asians preferred dominating conflict
- Asians, and Americans who had stayed in SG for 10+ years, tended to prefer conflict-avoidant
- this somewhat confirms the hypothesis, but obviously there are exceptions
- conclusion: conflict-resolution styles are complex and cannot be reduced to cultural dimensions alone

8

characteristics of short-term time oriented cultures

- not concerned with past traditions
- impatient, present-oriented
- prefers immediate results

9

characteristics of long-term time oriented cultures

-dynamic, future-oriented mentality
- encourages delayed gratification
- values long-standing traditions and values

10

effect of time orientation on delayed gratification

Chen et al. (2005)
- showed bicultural participants (who had been exposed to both Singaporean and American culture) collages of easily-recognisable photos relevant to one of the 2 cultures in order to selectively activate one
- participants were asked to perform an online shopping scenario in order to purchase a novel
- 2 shipping options: book could be delivered either within 4 business days for a standard fee, or the next day for a premium fee
- US-activated participants tended to choose the premium delivery (valued immediate consumption) more than Singapore-activated participants

11

effect of time orientation on conflict resolution

Basset (2004)
- participants were BusMan university students of either Chinese or Australian origin
- asked to analyse how a potential conflict between a Jap supervisor and Canadian visiting teacher might be resolved
- generally the Chinese were more concerned ƒwith saving face and preserving relationships
- Chinese tended to suggest solving problems and enhancing relationships at a dinner table or by giving gifts
- Australians tended to focus more on policies and procedures rather than cultural etiquette, and were less concerned with loss of face

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