SCLOA - outline & explain how SCLOA principles can be demonstrated in research Flashcards Preview

IB Psychology HL > SCLOA - outline & explain how SCLOA principles can be demonstrated in research > Flashcards

Flashcards in SCLOA - outline & explain how SCLOA principles can be demonstrated in research Deck (11):
1

principles of SCLOA

Principle 1: The social and cultural environment influences individual behaviour
Principle 2: We want connectedness with and a sense of belonging to others.
Principle 3: We construct our conceptions of the individual and social self.

2

Principle 1

The social and cultural environment influences individual behaviour
Social: Bandura (1965)
Cultural: Berry (1967)

3

Social Learning Theory

Coined by Bandura.
Assumes that humans learn behaviour via observational learning, with:
- attention
- retention
- motor reproduction
- motivation

4

factors determining whether social learning will occur

- consistency of model's behaviour
- identification with the model
- incentives (rewards/punishments)

5

characteristics of individualistic cultures

- focus on self > others
- individual autonomy and self-expression encouraged
- people are viewed as unique individuals

6

characteristics of collectivistic cultures

- focus on others > self
- individual autonomy and self-expression not encouraged.

7

effect of individualist/collectivist cultures on conformity

Berry (1967):
- replicated Asch (1951) with Temne people and Inuits
- found that Temne people conformed significantly more
- likely due to the cooperative nature of their economy
- so social agreement is important for the Temne
- in contrast, Inuits forage for resources individually

8

Principle 2

We want connectedness with and a sense of belonging to others
Main study: Asch (1951)

9

Asch (1951) - Summary

- participants were put in groups with confederates and asked to judge the length of a line
- confederates made obvious misjudgements
- but only 24% of participants didn't conform at all
- when asked why they conformed, participants said it was to avoid social disapproval/criticism
- Most participants said felt a need to feel accepted by the rest of the group
- the 'group' also includes the experimenter (some said they did not want to ruin the experiment)

10

Principle 3

We construct our conceptions of the individual and social self
Main study: Tajfel et al. (1971)

11

Tajfel et al. (1971) - Summary

- participant groups chosen arbitrarily (participants were led to believe the groups were chosen by a preference for paintings by Klee or Kandinsky)
- social identity still established despite the arbitrary method used to form groups
- participants showed strong tendency to award more points to in-group members
- some would give up point gains for their in-group just to make sure there was a difference in points between in-group and out-group
- despite working individually, boys still regarded themselves as belonging to a group
- study also supports the notion of in-group favouritism and positive distinctiveness

Decks in IB Psychology HL Class (60):