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Flashcards in Section 1 Deck (49):
1

Central Nervous System CNS

brain and spinal cord

2

Peripheral Nervous System PNS

peripheral nerves and ganglia,
sensory receptors

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Afferent

sensory

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Efferent

motor

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2 types of motor

somatic and autonomic

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Somatic

control of skeletal muscle movement

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Autonomic

regulation of internal organs, glands, and vasculature
aka Visceral Nervous System

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2 types of Autonomic

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

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Sympathetic

Fight or Flight
Energetic Action

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Parasympathetic

Rest and Digest
Restorative functions

11

4 sections of the cerebrum

Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Occipital Lobe

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Central sulcus

divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe

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Lateral (Sylvian) fissure

Borders the superior portion of the temporal lobe

14

Insula

A buried piece of the cerebral cortex
Latin for "island"
Borders and separates the temporal and frontal lobes

15

Gyrus

convoluted

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Gyri

bumps on the brain

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Sulci or fissures

grooves in the brain

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The precise pattern of gyri and sulci can _________ from individual to individual, but ________ are common to all human brains

vary considerably,
many features

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Postcentral gyrus

lies immediately posterior to the central sulcus
involved in somatic sensation (touch)

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Precentral gyrus

lies immediately anterior to central sulcus
control of voluntary movement

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Superior temporal gyrus

auditory

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Sensory

Visual Cortex
Somatic sensory areas
Auditory Cortex
Gustatory Cortex

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Visual Cortex

Occipital lobe

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Somatic sensory areas

Parietal lobe

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Auditory cortex

Temporal lobe

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Gustatory Cortex

inferior surface of the parietal lobe (the operculum) and buried in the insula

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Motor

Control of voluntary willful movement
frontal lobe

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Associated Motor areas

Prefrontal Cortex
Posterior Parietal Cortex
Inferotemporal Cortex

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Prefrontal Cortex

decision making, personality, behavior

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Posterior Parietal Cortex

planned movements

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Inferotemporal Cortex

face perception, recognition of numbers

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Medial view of brain reveals

Thalamus and Hypothalamus

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The Brainstem

midbrain (tectum and tegmentum)
pons
medulla

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Corpus Callosum

Bundle of axons that connects the two sides of the cerebrum

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fornix

connects the hippocampus on each side with the hypothalamus
some of the axons in the fornix regulate memory storage

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amygdala

emotion

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Hippocampus

memory

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Ventricular system

Lateral Ventricles
3rd ventricle
4th ventricle

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Cerebellum

motor control and balance

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pineal body

secretes melatonin and is involved in the regulation of sleep and sexual behavior

41

superior colliculus

receives direct input from the eyes and is involved in the control of eye movements

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inferior colliculus

component of the auditory system

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cerebellar peduncles

connect the cerebellum and the brain stem

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spinal nerves and spinal nerve roots

part of the PNS
31 pairs of nerves leave the spinal cord to supply the skin and the muscles
cutting a spinal nerve leads to a loss of sensation and a loss of movement in the affected region of the body
incoming sensory fibers and outgoing motor fiber divide into spinal roots where the nerves attach to the spinal cord
Ventral roots and Dorsal Roots

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Ventral Roots

Motor Fibers

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Dorsal Roots

Sensory Fibers

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Spinal Cord contains

Gray Matter and white matter

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Gray Matter

consists of neuronal cell bodies
Make up the Dorsal Horns, Lateral Horns, and Ventral Horns

49

White Matter

Consists of long axons that run up and down the spinal cord
Make up the Dorsal columns, lateral columns, and ventral columns