Section 1 - Food, Nutrition and health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 1 - Food, Nutrition and health Deck (30):
1

What are the functions of protein

-Growth of all body cells and tissue
-Repair and maintenance of all body tissue- i.e makes hormones, enzymes and antibodies
-Provides an energy source - 1g = 4kcal

2

What are proteins made of?

amino acids - the 'building blocks of the body'

3

What is the difference between non-essential amino acids and essential amino acids?

Non- essential amino acids: The ones out bodies can make ( there are 11)
Essential amino acids: The amino acids our bodies do not produce, so we have to get them through food. ( there are 9)

4

What is HBV proteins?

High biological value proteins. These foods contain all of the essential amino acids.
These are mainly found in animal source ( meats, fish, milk) and some plant based proteins (soya beans, quinoa)

5

What are LBV proteins?

Low biological value proteins. These foods are missing one or more of the essential amino acids (plant sources such as peas, lentils, nuts, seeds and most beans, spinach or broccoli)

6

Describe protein complementation

Protein complementation ois the combination of two LBV foods ,which only have a few of the essesntial amino acids, such as hummus and pitta, to make a meal that contains all of the needed amino acids.

7

what are the DRV of protein?

Average male - 55g
Average female - 45g

8

Why would pregnant women need to have more protein?

Pregnant women will need 6g of protein to help the baby grow and will require even more when breastfeeding.

9

What is the function of carbohydrates?

Provided energy for the body for movement, growth, chemical processes and reactions

10

What are the four functional and chemical properties for proteins?

1. Denaturation
2. Gluten formation
3. Coagulation
4. Foam formation

11

What are the four functional and chemical properties for fats?

1. Shortening
2. Aeration
3. Plasticity
4. Emulsification

12

What are the three functional and chemical properties for carbohydrates?

1. Dextrinisation
2. Gelatinisation
3. Caramelisation

13

Define DENATURATION

Protein
A change in structure of the protein molecules

May be permanent when heated and change in chemical structure or temporary e.g. when egg white foam stands and collapses back to usual state

14

Define GLUTEN FORMATION

Protein
GLUTEN is a general name for all t proteins found in flour.
‘Strong bread flour’ contains large amounts of both Gleason and glutenin, creating gluten

15

What is glutenin for?

Gives the dough strength and elasticity

16

What is gliadin for?

Binds the dough together into a sticky mass

17

Define COAGULATION

Protein
The setting of protein brought about by heat an acids. It is reversible

18

Define FOAM FORMATION

Protein
Foam occurs when. Gas is spread through a liquid (i.e whisking eggs) to produce a gas-in-liquid foam

19

Define SHORTENING

Fats
The process in which fats coat the flour particles, preventing absorption of water, resulting in a crumbling mixture
(Think of making an apple crumble or pastry)

20

Define AERATION

Fats
When air is trapped in a mixture

21

Define PLASTICITY

Fats
The ability of a solid fat to soften over a range of temperature

22

Define EMULSIFICATION

A mixture of two liquids- oil and water

23

What are the two types of emulsion?

1. An oil-in-water emulsion. Forms when there is more water than oil(e.g. mayonnaise)
2. A water-in-oil emulsion . Forms when there is more oil than water (i.e. butter)

24

Define an emulsifier

Emulsifiers are substances that will allow two immiscible liquids to hold together

25

Define a hydrophilic molecule

(Water-lover)
Attracted to water

26

Define a hydrophobic molecule

(Water-hating)
Repulsed by water

27

What happens when you add an emulsifier?

The water molecules bond to the hydrophilic side and the oil molecules bond to the hydrophobic side. This holds the oil and water together into a stable emulsion

28

Give an example of a stable emulsion

Mayonnaise

29

Define DEXTRINISATION

Carbohydrate
When a dry heat turns a starch brown e.g baking a cake

30

Define GELATINISATION

Carbohydrates
Process in which moist heat is applied to starch grains, which swell, break open and release thickening AMYLASE