Section 1: Small Exotic Mammal Nutrition (Fredholm) Flashcards Preview

Nutrition > Section 1: Small Exotic Mammal Nutrition (Fredholm) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Section 1: Small Exotic Mammal Nutrition (Fredholm) Deck (52):
1

T or F: little or no AAFCO standards for many exotic species

T

2

Domesticated small exotics

rabbits, ferrets, rodents (rats, mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils) standards and research DO exist

3

non-domesticated small exotics

hedgehogs, sugar gliders, prairie dogs, etc. Very little known about their diet requirements!

4

Hind-gut fermenters (5)

rabbits, chinchillas, guinea pigs, degus, prairie dogs. Have a large cecum

5

Rabbit GIT chars.

-large cecum
-long GIT
-lots of feces
-cecotropes (higher in nutrients, eaten to reabsorb these)

6

Rabbit oral cavity chars.

-6 incisors (including 2 peg teeth)
-cheek teeth for grinding
-diastema (gap)
-open-rooted continuously growing teeth

7

Fiber in hindgut fermenters is important for:

-tooth wear
-general oral health
-gastric oral health

8

goal fiber content in diet of hindgut ferm.

20-25%. Fiber should also be appropriately long!

9

role of water in hind-gut fermenters

motility

10

Why are commercial pelleted diets not complete for rabbits?

-not enough indigestible fiber
-fiber too short
-too much fat/protein
-create an obese rabbit!

11

rabbits and too much fruit

decreases pH, resulting in dysbiosis (diarrhea, GI ulcers, poor absorption)

12

Benefits of chewing in rabbits

appropriate tooth wear, adequate GI motility

13

common health problems assoc. with inappropriate diet in rabbits

-dental dz
-abnormal feces --> GI stasis/ileus*

14

Should you only examine rabbit incisors?

NO! Must always examine cheek teeth too; may require sedation, rads, CT

15

benefit of CT over dental rads

lets you see what's going on under the gum line

16

what kind of hay to feed rabbits? Why?

grass, NOT legume hay. Legume is high in calcium and can cause hypercalcemia and is also too rich in protein and fat

17

Hypercalcemia in rabbits may cause:

stone formation w/n kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Potential for urinary obstruction

18

Describe a proper rabbit diet

-free choice timothy hay
-small amt. pellets per 24 hrs
-handful of greens (not spinach)
-rare treats (i.e. carrots, squash)
-rare fruit

19

bad brand of rabbit food. why?

Fiesta. high carbs, low fiber

20

Tx for anorexic hind gut fermenter

-an emergency!
-rehydrate
-feed
-pain control
-determined why stopped eating

21

assisted feeding in HGFs

finely ground hay (high fiber). May be syringe fed

22

Guinea pigs have special requirement for:

vitamin C (can't synthesize on their own)

23

scurvy in guinea pigs results in:

-loose teeth, malocclusion
-joint problems, limping

24

Guinea pigs have a long/short GI transit time?

long

25

Complete Guinea pig diet composed of:

-timothy-based pellets
-handful greens,carrots
-free choice hay
-vit. C source
-water

26

common guinea pig nutritional dz

-obesity
-diabetes mellitus
-dental dz
-ileus/diarrhea/constipation
-urolithiasis
-hypovitaminosis C

27

prairie dog natural diet

grasses, leaves, herbs, flowering plants, invertebrates

28

prairie dog dietary recommendations

-80-85% timothy hay
-10-15% pellet
-5-10% greens, veggies
-H2O

29

common prairie dog dz

-obesity
-dental dz, including odontoma

30

history and tx of odontoma in prairie dogs

H: difficulty eating, upper airway dz, nasal discharge
Tx: removal of tooth/tumor, poor prognosis

*can be related to poor diet*

31

Degus diet

-little water
-hay, hay pellets, veggie treats

32

Common nutritional Degus dz

diabetes (intolerant to high carbs, seeds in diet)

33

Rodent diet

(omnivores)
-rodent block (16% protein, 4-5% fat), veggies
-avoid seeds

34

rodent nut. dz

-obesity
-neoplasia (2ary to obesity)

35

Hedgehog GI

-nocturnal insectivores
-short simple GI tract
-not rodents

36

hedgehog diet

-insect-based diet, fruit, veggies

37

hedgehog nut. dz

-obesity
-hepatic lipidosis
-Ca deficiency
-diabetes mellitus
-dental dz

38

opossums chars.

-lower metabolic rate
-nocturnal
-omnivores
-prone to obesity

39

opossum diet

-feed like dogs + fruit, veggies, greens

40

sugar gliders chars.

-nocturnal
-omnivores
-complex wild diet of sap,nectar,pollen,insects,arachnids,etc.
-commercial diet should include nectar, insects, protein source**, fruits, veggies

41

sugar glider nut. dz

-metabolic bone dz
-hypocalcemia
-hypoglycemia
-hypoproteinemia
-obesity
-dental dz (from high carb, soft diets)

42

pot bellied pigs dietary needs

-omnivores
-SMALL amt. of feed not too high in fat/protein (12% P, 2% F, 12-15% fiber)
-don't feed like commerical pigs!!

43

PBP dz

-obesity
-white muscle dz (vit. E def.)
-Urolithiasis (from high carb diet)

44

ferret chars.

-obligate carnivores
-short GI tract
-require high protein/fat, low fiber diet
-can feed free choice

45

ferret nut. dz

-Insulinomas (too many carbs)
-eosinophilic gastroenteritis (food allergies? helicobacter?)

46

skunk/raccoon chars.

-omnivores
-feed like dog + veggies + meat

47

skunk/raccoon nut. dz

-obesity
-metabolic bone dz (Ca def.)

48

primates chars.

-omnivores
-require vit. D3 and C
-monkey biscuits should be mainstay of diet
-challenging!

49

primates nut. dz

-Vit. C def. (scurvy)
-metabolic bone dz/rickets
-diabetes mellitus (high carb diet)

50

how to control diabetes in primates?

diet, oral hypoglycemics, and/or insulin

51

felids diet. requirements

-taurine
-Ca:P ratio important
-meat + viscera (feed like domestic cats)

52

felids nut. dz

metabolic bone dz very common