Flashcards in Section 1: Small Exotic Mammal Nutrition (Fredholm) Deck (52):
T or F: little or no AAFCO standards for many exotic species
Domesticated small exotics
rabbits, ferrets, rodents (rats, mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils) standards and research DO exist
non-domesticated small exotics
hedgehogs, sugar gliders, prairie dogs, etc. Very little known about their diet requirements!
Hind-gut fermenters (5)
rabbits, chinchillas, guinea pigs, degus, prairie dogs. Have a large cecum
Rabbit GIT chars.
-lots of feces
-cecotropes (higher in nutrients, eaten to reabsorb these)
Rabbit oral cavity chars.
-6 incisors (including 2 peg teeth)
-cheek teeth for grinding
-open-rooted continuously growing teeth
Fiber in hindgut fermenters is important for:
-general oral health
-gastric oral health
goal fiber content in diet of hindgut ferm.
20-25%. Fiber should also be appropriately long!
role of water in hind-gut fermenters
Why are commercial pelleted diets not complete for rabbits?
-not enough indigestible fiber
-fiber too short
-too much fat/protein
-create an obese rabbit!
rabbits and too much fruit
decreases pH, resulting in dysbiosis (diarrhea, GI ulcers, poor absorption)
Benefits of chewing in rabbits
appropriate tooth wear, adequate GI motility
common health problems assoc. with inappropriate diet in rabbits
-abnormal feces --> GI stasis/ileus*
Should you only examine rabbit incisors?
NO! Must always examine cheek teeth too; may require sedation, rads, CT
benefit of CT over dental rads
lets you see what's going on under the gum line
what kind of hay to feed rabbits? Why?
grass, NOT legume hay. Legume is high in calcium and can cause hypercalcemia and is also too rich in protein and fat
Hypercalcemia in rabbits may cause:
stone formation w/n kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Potential for urinary obstruction
Describe a proper rabbit diet
-free choice timothy hay
-small amt. pellets per 24 hrs
-handful of greens (not spinach)
-rare treats (i.e. carrots, squash)
bad brand of rabbit food. why?
Fiesta. high carbs, low fiber
Tx for anorexic hind gut fermenter
-determined why stopped eating
assisted feeding in HGFs
finely ground hay (high fiber). May be syringe fed
Guinea pigs have special requirement for:
vitamin C (can't synthesize on their own)
scurvy in guinea pigs results in:
-loose teeth, malocclusion
-joint problems, limping
Guinea pigs have a long/short GI transit time?
Complete Guinea pig diet composed of:
-free choice hay
-vit. C source
common guinea pig nutritional dz
prairie dog natural diet
grasses, leaves, herbs, flowering plants, invertebrates
prairie dog dietary recommendations
-80-85% timothy hay
-5-10% greens, veggies
common prairie dog dz
-dental dz, including odontoma
history and tx of odontoma in prairie dogs
H: difficulty eating, upper airway dz, nasal discharge
Tx: removal of tooth/tumor, poor prognosis
*can be related to poor diet*
-hay, hay pellets, veggie treats
Common nutritional Degus dz
diabetes (intolerant to high carbs, seeds in diet)
-rodent block (16% protein, 4-5% fat), veggies
rodent nut. dz
-neoplasia (2ary to obesity)
-short simple GI tract
-insect-based diet, fruit, veggies
hedgehog nut. dz
-lower metabolic rate
-prone to obesity
-feed like dogs + fruit, veggies, greens
sugar gliders chars.
-complex wild diet of sap,nectar,pollen,insects,arachnids,etc.
-commercial diet should include nectar, insects, protein source**, fruits, veggies
sugar glider nut. dz
-metabolic bone dz
-dental dz (from high carb, soft diets)
pot bellied pigs dietary needs
-SMALL amt. of feed not too high in fat/protein (12% P, 2% F, 12-15% fiber)
-don't feed like commerical pigs!!
-white muscle dz (vit. E def.)
-Urolithiasis (from high carb diet)
-short GI tract
-require high protein/fat, low fiber diet
-can feed free choice
ferret nut. dz
-Insulinomas (too many carbs)
-eosinophilic gastroenteritis (food allergies? helicobacter?)
-feed like dog + veggies + meat
skunk/raccoon nut. dz
-metabolic bone dz (Ca def.)
-require vit. D3 and C
-monkey biscuits should be mainstay of diet
primates nut. dz
-Vit. C def. (scurvy)
-metabolic bone dz/rickets
-diabetes mellitus (high carb diet)
how to control diabetes in primates?
diet, oral hypoglycemics, and/or insulin
felids diet. requirements
-Ca:P ratio important
-meat + viscera (feed like domestic cats)