Flashcards in Section 11: Animal Forms and Functions 2 Deck (120)
These organisms are unicellular and their digestive system involves food capture via phagocytosis
What is consumed is stored in _________
and these fuse with ______
This unicellular organism's digestive system comprises cilia sweeping food into the cytopharynx
This forms and moves toward the anterior end of the cell
In invertebrates, this is accomplished by cutting and grinding in the mouth and churning in the digestive tract of food
In invertebrates, chemical breakdown occurs via _______ breaking down food into smaller nutrients which pass through a semi-permeable membrane of gut cells to be further metabolized
These invertebrates engae in intracellular and extracellular digestion
These invertebrates have a one way digestive tract
This part of them is for food storage
This part grinds food
This part contains typholosole to increase SA for absorption
These invertebrates also have jaws for chewing and salivary glands
In digestion in humans, their are four groups of molecules that are encountered, what are they?
Fatty acids (Fat)
Nucleotides (nucleic acids)
Digestion follows a specific series of events in humans. All digestive enzymes cleave UNSPECIFIC or SPECIFIC bonds?
Food goes through six places in the body during digestion, what are they?
Large Intestine (colon)
In the mouth, this enzyme breaks down starch.
What does it turn starch into?
Chewing creates ____ which is swallowed
In the pharynx, where food and air passages cross, ______ is a flap of tissue that blocks the trachea so only solid and liquid can enter
This is the tube leading to the stomach
Food travels by contractions, aka
This part of the digestive system secretes digestive enzymes and HCl
These secretions are collectively called
Food enters the stomach through the lower/esophogeal cardiac sphincter. The stomach contains ________ within indentations in the stomach that denote entrance to the gastric glands.
The indentations are called
Within the gastric pits are the _____________, which contain chief cells, parietal cells, and mucous cells
In the stomach, storage is increased by ____ which allow 2-4 liters of storages
Mixing in the stomach is done with H2O and gastric juice, creating a creamy medium called
For physical breakdown in the stomach, ____ break food
____ denatures proteins and kills bacteria
For chemical breakdown in the stomach, ________ digests proteins.
It is secreted by
Pepsinogen in activated by ____, which is secreted by ______ cells
These are caused by failure of the musocal lining to protect the stomach, and can be caused by excess stomach acid or H. pylori as well
After digestion in the stomach, there is controlled release of ____ into the small testine
This process is controlled by the
These stomach cells secrete mucous that lubricates and protects the stomach's epithelial lining from the acidic environment
These stomach cells secrete pepsinogen, the zymogen precursor to pepsin
Pepsinogen is activated to pepsin by what?
Low pH (HCl/acidity)
These stomach cells secrete HCL, and intrinsic factor which is necessary for B12 absorption
This is a large peptide hormone in the stomach which is absorbed into the blood, it stimulates the parietal cell to secrete HCl
Which stomach cells secrete it?
This molecule increases the secretion of all stomach cell types
These molecules increase HCl secretion in stomach cells
Gastrin and Histamine
This is where food goes after being digested in the stomach
The food enters through the
The first 25cm is called the _______ and continues breakdown of ____ and _____ and remaining food types
Starches and proteins
What is between the small intestine and large intestine?
List the structures of the small intestine, of which there are 3
Dudenum (most digestion)
The last two primarily are for absorption
90% of digestion/absorption occurs in which organ of the digestive tract?
The small intestine's wall has finger like projections called ______ that increase the surface area for greater digestion/absorption
On those are even smaller ones, called
Each villi in the small intestine has a lymph vessel surrounded by a capillary network, functioning for nutrient absorption, called
These cells in the small intestine secrete mucus to lubricate and protect from damage
What is the pH of the duodenum?
What contributes to this pH
Bicarbonate ions from pancreas
What category of enzymes are in the small intestine?
Proteolytic enzymes (proteases, maltase and lactase, phosphatases/nucleosidases (nucleotides), also lipases)
This organ secretes bicarbonate to the small intestine
It also acts as a ____ releasing major enzymes from acinar cells via the pancreatic duct
What major enzymes does the pancreas secrete to the stomach?
All of these exist as ______ first
Once ______ is activated, it activates the rest
Trypsin & chymotrypsin (proteases), lipase, pancreatic amylase, deoxy & ribonucleases
The enzymes secreted by the pancreas are in what type of solution?
Where are they released?
This organ produces bile
Where is it stored?
Then it flows through the bile duct which merges chime with digestive juices
The chyme moves through the intestines via _____ as well
This second type of intestinal motion mixes chime with digestive juices as well
This organ of the digestive tract reabsorbs water and salts to form feces, it's about 1.5 m long
Feces is stored at the end of the large intestine in the
It is excreted through the
At the beginning of the large intestine is the
In herbivores it is a large _________ used for cellulose digestion
Bacteria helps in large intestine aiding digestion, is is a _______ in the large intestine.
They are the main source of...
Vitamin K and B
These are neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract
What stimulates them?
What do they release?
What does this stimulate?
Parietal cells to produce gastric acid
This hormone involved in the digestive process is produced by the stomach when food reaches or upon sensing of food
This hormone in the digestive system is produced by cells lining the duodenum when food enters, they stimulate the pancreas to produce bicarbonate
What does bicarbonate do?
Neutralizes the chime
This hormone involved in the digestive process is produced by the small intestine in response to fats; it stimulates the gallbladder to release bile and the pancreas to release its enzymes
This hormone involved in the digestive system is produced in response to fat/protein digestates in the duodenum; results in mild decrease in stomach motor activity
Gastric inhibitory peptide
Do plants have a digestive system?
No, but intracellular processes similar to animals occur
In intracellular digestion in plants, what is primarily stored in seeds, stems, and roots
Polymers are broken down by......
Several plants must obtain nutrients from the environment, so they engaged in
In this plant, it secretes enzymes into bread, producing simple digestive products which are then absorbed by diffusion in rhizoid
Fungi (rhizoids of bread mold)
In this organism, enzymes digest the trapped fly
The fly serves as a source of
Is the organism still autotrophic?
The liver functions in the storage of blood!
It also functions in blood filtration. What cells phagcytize bacteria picked up in the intestines?
The liver also is important in the metabolism of ________
It maintains normal glucose via 3 mechanisms:
All carbs absorbed into the blood are carried by the _____ to the liver
Absorbed galactose and fructose are converted to _____ then stored as
Gluconeogenosis, glycogenesis, and storage of glycogen
Converted to glucose, stored as glycogen
The liver is also important for the _________ of AAs
Forms ____ from common ammonia in blood, synthesizes plasma proteins, synthesizes nonessential AAs
The liver also excretes chemicals that have been __________ as part of the bile, or polarized to be excreted by kidneys
The liver is also important in the destruction of irregular _____ via kupfer cells (but most are destroyed by the spleen)
What, other than blood, does the liver store?
Stores iron by combining it with apoferritin--->ferritin
The is the formation of glycogen
This is the breakdown of glyocgen to gluose for release
When the liver mobilizes fat or protein for energy, blood acididty INCREASES/DECREASES
What supplies blood to the liver?
blood leaves via the
Hepatic portal vein as does hepatic artery
So in sum, the liver is digestive because it produces _______
It helps with transport because it synthesizes ________ important in clotting
Blood plasma proteins
Which is more rapid/direct/specific, the nervous system of the endocrine system?
Which is slower/spreads through body/affects many cells/tissues in different ways/longer lasting
This cell consists of several dendrites and a single (branched) axon, and a cell body
This part of the neuron receives information and transfers it to the cell body
This part of the neuron transfers impulses away from the cell body
These are the nervous tissue support cells that are capable of cell division
These glial cells produce myelin in the CNS, which wraps many times around axons
These glial cells produce myelin in the PNS
In the nervous system, this acts as an insulator for neurons
What separates it?
Nodes of Ranvier
Does an action potential travel continuously down an axon?
What is this conduction called?
No, it jumps from node to node, speeding up the impusle
Only what trpe of organisms have myelinated axons?
Myelinated axons appear what color?
Neuronal cell bodies appear
White (white matter)
Gray (gray matter
These glial cells are the phagocytes of the CNS
These glial cells use cilia to circulate CSF
These support ganglia, aka groups of cell bodies in the PNS
These provide physical support to neurons of the CNS, maintaining mineral and nutrient balance
There are three types of neurons, these receive the inital stimulus (ex: neurons in retina of the eye which go back to brain)
This type of neuron stimulates effectors, target cells that elicit some response
(ex: neurons may stimulate the muscles, sweat glands, or cells in the stomach to secrete gastrin) Goes from brain to muscle
This type of neuron is located in the spinal cord and brain, it receives impulses from sensory neurons and sends impulses to motor neurons
The are _________, as they evaluate impulses for the appropriate response
What percent of nerves are this type?
Association Neurons (Interneuron)
99% of nerves are what type of neuron?
The membrane of an unstimulated neuron is _________
There is a high amount of ______ outside of the cell and high amount of ________ inside the cell
Which has a negative charge, inside the cell or outside the cell?
Na+ outside the cell
K+ inside the cell
Inside the cell is negatively charged (~70 mV), due negatively charged proteins and nucleic acids residing with in the cell
Neuron membranes are selectively permeable to ______ as apposed to ______, which helps to maintain the polarization of the membrane
Selectively permeable to K+, as apposed to Na+, which helps maintain the polarization
This is term for the normal polarized state of the neuron
What is the charge in mV?
-70mV (NEGATIVE 70 mV)
This is the stimulus phase of a nerve impulse, gated ions channels let _______ into the cell, which effectively depolarizes it
Na+ is let into the cell
In order for an action potential to occur, a _____ must be reached. Once it crosses this an action potential will occur. All or nothing!
What is the threshold value, approximately?
It results in the opening of what down the entire length of the neuron?
Voltage gated Na+ channels
After the action potential, in response to the Na+ flow in, more gated ion channels let _____ out of the cell, restoring polarization
BUT the Na+ is in and the K+ are out.
What phase of the nerve impulse is this
By the time gated ion channels close in repolarization, too much ____ is released. This phase is known as
After hyperpolarization, the neuron will NOT respond to new stimulus until the Na+ and K+ pumps return the ions to their normal resting potential locations. This point of the nerve impulse is called the
If __________, an abnormally large stimuli can create an AP
ABSOLUTE Refractory period
Note that the _____________ stage of the nerve impulse is what prevents the AP from moving backwards, even though ions are theoretically rushing in and diffusing in both directions
During the nerve impulse, from -70mV up to the threshold is the _____ that cannot travel, but it can potentially (if it surpasses threshold) open the voltage gated channels and this part is the action action potential
The other gated types cannot spread unless they trigger this AP.
Graded Potential (changes in membrane potential that vary in size as opposed to being all or nothing)
Since the action potential is all or nothing, what is the strength of a neural signal based on?
Frequency of firing or how many nervous cells contribute to APs, etc
Transmission of a nerve impulse occurs across a _______ from a _____ cell to a _____ cell
Presynaptic cell to a post synaptic cell
In this type of synapse, an action potential travels along membranes of gap junctions (less common). It is fast, occurs in cardiac and smooth muscle
In this type of synapse, which is most typical in animal cells, it is undirectional
The first step of chemical synapse involves the opening of what gates caused by depolarization of the membrane?
Then, these release a neurotranmitter after the influx mentioned above
The NT binds with the postsynaptic receptor by release via what mechanism?
After the binding of NT to post synaptic receptor, the post synaptic membrane can be either ______ or _______
Diffusion through the membrane, then it binds the postsynaptic membrane
Excited or inhibited
In this type of response caused by a neurotransmitter, Na+ gates open and the membrane is depolarized
If the threshold is exceeded is the action potential inhibited or generated?
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
In this type of response caused by a NT, K gates open and the membrane becomes HYPERpolarized
If the threshold is exceeded is the action potential inhibited or generated?
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential
More difficult to generate action potential (inhibited)
What happens to the NT after it binds to the postsynaptic membrane?
Degraded and recycled by enzymes in the cleft.
This common NT is sercreted at neuromuscular joints for muscle contraction/relaxation
Everywhere else it has what effect?
Sympathetic or parasympathetic?
These common NTs are AA derived and secreted between neurons of CNS
Sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system?
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (5HT)
Sympathetic Nervous system
This is an inhibitory NT among brain neurons
GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)
Greater diameter and more heavily myelinated axons will propogateFASTER/SLOWER impulses. Why?
Faster. Less resistance to flow of ions with greater diameter. More myelin means more saltatory conduction, the NA doesn't gradually diffuse outward (charge leakage) at every successive AP because of myelin wrapped sections so it goes straight from node to node
The NT may be taken back into the nerve terminal, is this passive or active transport?
It can also be degraded by synaptic cleft enzymes or diffuse out of the synapse
This nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System
In the CNS, there is outer gray matter (cell bodies) and inner white matter (axons)
This is the largest and most important brain region which contains the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, thalamus, and hypothalamus
This part of the forebrain processes sensory input and is important for memory and creative thought
This part of the forebrain is important for smell
This part is important for relay with the spinal cord and cerebral cortex
This part is important for visceral function (water balance, blood pressure, temp regulation, hunger, thirst, sex)
This part of the brain is the relay center for visual/auditory impulses; motor control
This is the posterior part of the brain
This part is important for the maintanence of balance, hand eye coordination, timing of rapid movements
this is the relay center to allow communication between cortex and cerebellum
This is the part of the hindbrain that is important for heart rate, GI activity, and breathing
This structure of the brain consists of the midbrain + medulla oblongata + pons. It connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord
The spinal cord is made of white/inner gray matter.
Sensory info enters through the
All motor info exits through the
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain with two hemispheres which is connected by the ______ which is a thick nerve bundle
This lobe of the brain is involved in conscious thought, voluntary skeletal muscle movement
This part of the brain is involved in the sensory areas - temperature, touch, pressure, pain
This part is involved in hearing and smelling
This part is involved in vision
This nervous system consists of a sensory branch and a motor branch
The motor branch consists of the ____ and _____ nervous systems
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic and Autonomic
This part of the motor PNS is responsible for voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
This part is responsible for involuntary movement, it innervates cardiac and smooth muscle
This part of the autonomic nervous system controls the fight or flight response (high BP and HR)
This part of the autonomic nervous system controls resting and digesting, it is the non-emergency (lower HR, digestion, relaxation, sexual arousal)
This is a rapid involuntary response to a stimulus involving two or three neurons, but the brain does not integrate the sensory and motor activities
Instead, they synapse at the
Reflex Arc (ex: knee jerk/patellar reflex)
There are 5 types of sensory receptors
These are for touch
These are for temperature
These are for pain
These are for light
These are for taste, smell, blood chemistry
Where do their neural pathways terminate, CNS or PNS?