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Flashcards in Section 11: Animal Forms and Functions 2 Deck (120):
1

These organisms are unicellular and their digestive system involves food capture via phagocytosis

What is consumed is stored in _________

and these fuse with ______

Amoeba

Food vacuoles

Lysosomes

2

This unicellular organism's digestive system comprises cilia sweeping food into the cytopharynx

This forms and moves toward the anterior end of the cell

Paramecium

Food Vacuole

3

In invertebrates, this is accomplished by cutting and grinding in the mouth and churning in the digestive tract of food

Physical Breakdown

4

In invertebrates, chemical breakdown occurs via _______ breaking down food into smaller nutrients which pass through a semi-permeable membrane of gut cells to be further metabolized

Enzymatic hydrolysis

5

These invertebrates engae in intracellular and extracellular digestion

Cnidarians (hydra)

6

These invertebrates have a one way digestive tract

This part of them is for food storage

This part grinds food

This part contains typholosole to increase SA for absorption

Annelids (earthworms)

Crop

Gizzard

Intestine

7

These invertebrates also have jaws for chewing and salivary glands

Arthropods

8

In digestion in humans, their are four groups of molecules that are encountered, what are they?

Glucose (sugar)
AAs (protein)
Fatty acids (Fat)
Nucleotides (nucleic acids)

9

Digestion follows a specific series of events in humans. All digestive enzymes cleave UNSPECIFIC or SPECIFIC bonds?

Specific bonds

10

Food goes through six places in the body during digestion, what are they?

Mouth
Pharynx (throat)
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine (colon)

11

In the mouth, this enzyme breaks down starch.

What does it turn starch into?

Chewing creates ____ which is swallowed

Salivary a-amylase

Maltose

Bolus

12

In the pharynx, where food and air passages cross, ______ is a flap of tissue that blocks the trachea so only solid and liquid can enter

Epiglottis

13

This is the tube leading to the stomach

Food travels by contractions, aka

Esophagus

Peristalsis

14

This part of the digestive system secretes digestive enzymes and HCl

These secretions are collectively called

Stomach

Gastric Juices

15

Food enters the stomach through the lower/esophogeal cardiac sphincter. The stomach contains ________ within indentations in the stomach that denote entrance to the gastric glands.

The indentations are called

Exocrine Glands

Gastric Pits

16

Within the gastric pits are the _____________, which contain chief cells, parietal cells, and mucous cells

Gastric Glands

17

In the stomach, storage is increased by ____ which allow 2-4 liters of storages

Folds

18

Mixing in the stomach is done with H2O and gastric juice, creating a creamy medium called

Chyme

19

For physical breakdown in the stomach, ____ break food

____ denatures proteins and kills bacteria

Muscles

HCl

20

For chemical breakdown in the stomach, ________ digests proteins.

It is secreted by

Pepsin

Chief Cells

21

Pepsinogen in activated by ____, which is secreted by ______ cells

HCl

Parietal cells

22

These are caused by failure of the musocal lining to protect the stomach, and can be caused by excess stomach acid or H. pylori as well

Peptic Ulcers

23

After digestion in the stomach, there is controlled release of ____ into the small testine

This process is controlled by the

Chyme

Pyloric Sphincter

24

These stomach cells secrete mucous that lubricates and protects the stomach's epithelial lining from the acidic environment

Mucous Cells

25

These stomach cells secrete pepsinogen, the zymogen precursor to pepsin

Pepsinogen is activated to pepsin by what?

Chief Cells

Low pH (HCl/acidity)

26

These stomach cells secrete HCL, and intrinsic factor which is necessary for B12 absorption

Parietal Cells

27

This is a large peptide hormone in the stomach which is absorbed into the blood, it stimulates the parietal cell to secrete HCl

Which stomach cells secrete it?

Gastrin

G cells

28

This molecule increases the secretion of all stomach cell types

Acetylcholine

29

These molecules increase HCl secretion in stomach cells

Gastrin and Histamine

30

This is where food goes after being digested in the stomach

The food enters through the

The first 25cm is called the _______ and continues breakdown of ____ and _____ and remaining food types

Small intestine

Pyloric Sphincter

Duodenum

Starches and proteins

31

What is between the small intestine and large intestine?

ileocecal Valve

32

List the structures of the small intestine, of which there are 3

Dudenum (most digestion)

Jejunum

Ileum

The last two primarily are for absorption

33

90% of digestion/absorption occurs in which organ of the digestive tract?

Small intestine

34

The small intestine's wall has finger like projections called ______ that increase the surface area for greater digestion/absorption

On those are even smaller ones, called

Villi

Microvilli

35

Each villi in the small intestine has a lymph vessel surrounded by a capillary network, functioning for nutrient absorption, called

Lacteal

36

These cells in the small intestine secrete mucus to lubricate and protect from damage

Goblet Cells

37

What is the pH of the duodenum?

What contributes to this pH
?

about 6

Bicarbonate ions from pancreas

38

What category of enzymes are in the small intestine?

Proteolytic enzymes (proteases, maltase and lactase, phosphatases/nucleosidases (nucleotides), also lipases)

39

This organ secretes bicarbonate to the small intestine

It also acts as a ____ releasing major enzymes from acinar cells via the pancreatic duct

Pancreas

Exocrine Gland

40

What major enzymes does the pancreas secrete to the stomach?

All of these exist as ______ first

Once ______ is activated, it activates the rest

Trypsin & chymotrypsin (proteases), lipase, pancreatic amylase, deoxy & ribonucleases

zymogens/proenzymes (inactive)

Trypsin

41

The enzymes secreted by the pancreas are in what type of solution?

Where are they released?

Alkaline

Duodenum

42

This organ produces bile

Where is it stored?

Then it flows through the bile duct which merges chime with digestive juices

Liver

Gall bladder

43

The chyme moves through the intestines via _____ as well

This second type of intestinal motion mixes chime with digestive juices as well

Peristalsis

Segmentation

44

This organ of the digestive tract reabsorbs water and salts to form feces, it's about 1.5 m long

Large Intestine

45

Feces is stored at the end of the large intestine in the

It is excreted through the

Rectum

Anus

46

At the beginning of the large intestine is the

In herbivores it is a large _________ used for cellulose digestion

Appendix

Cecum

47

Bacteria helps in large intestine aiding digestion, is is a _______ in the large intestine.

They are the main source of...

Symbiont

Vitamin K and B

48

These are neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract

What stimulates them?

What do they release?

What does this stimulate?

ECL cells

Gastrin

Histamine

Parietal cells to produce gastric acid

49

This hormone involved in the digestive process is produced by the stomach when food reaches or upon sensing of food

Gastrin

50

This hormone in the digestive system is produced by cells lining the duodenum when food enters, they stimulate the pancreas to produce bicarbonate

What does bicarbonate do?

Secretin

Neutralizes the chime

51

This hormone involved in the digestive process is produced by the small intestine in response to fats; it stimulates the gallbladder to release bile and the pancreas to release its enzymes

Cholecytoskinin

52

This hormone involved in the digestive system is produced in response to fat/protein digestates in the duodenum; results in mild decrease in stomach motor activity

Gastric inhibitory peptide

53

Do plants have a digestive system?

No, but intracellular processes similar to animals occur

54

In intracellular digestion in plants, what is primarily stored in seeds, stems, and roots

Polymers are broken down by......

Starch

Enzymatic hydrolysis

55

Several plants must obtain nutrients from the environment, so they engaged in

Extracellular digestion

56

In this plant, it secretes enzymes into bread, producing simple digestive products which are then absorbed by diffusion in rhizoid

(extracellular digestion)

Fungi (rhizoids of bread mold)

57

In this organism, enzymes digest the trapped fly

The fly serves as a source of

Is the organism still autotrophic?

(extracellular digestion)

Venus flytrap

Nitrate

Yes.

58

The liver functions in the storage of blood!

It also functions in blood filtration. What cells phagcytize bacteria picked up in the intestines?

Kupfer cells

59

The liver also is important in the metabolism of ________

It maintains normal glucose via 3 mechanisms:

All carbs absorbed into the blood are carried by the _____ to the liver

Absorbed galactose and fructose are converted to _____ then stored as

Carbohydrates

Gluconeogenosis, glycogenesis, and storage of glycogen

Portal vein

Converted to glucose, stored as glycogen

60

The liver is also important for the _________ of AAs

Forms ____ from common ammonia in blood, synthesizes plasma proteins, synthesizes nonessential AAs

Deamination

Urea

61

The liver also excretes chemicals that have been __________ as part of the bile, or polarized to be excreted by kidneys

Detoxified

62

The liver is also important in the destruction of irregular _____ via kupfer cells (but most are destroyed by the spleen)

Erythrocytes

63

What, other than blood, does the liver store?

Vitamin A,D,B12

Stores iron by combining it with apoferritin--->ferritin

64

The is the formation of glycogen

This is the breakdown of glyocgen to gluose for release

Glycogenesis

Glycogenolysis

65

When the liver mobilizes fat or protein for energy, blood acididty INCREASES/DECREASES

increases

66

What supplies blood to the liver?

blood leaves via the

Hepatic portal vein as does hepatic artery

vena cava

67

So in sum, the liver is digestive because it produces _______

It helps with transport because it synthesizes ________ important in clotting

Bile

Blood plasma proteins

68

Which is more rapid/direct/specific, the nervous system of the endocrine system?

Which is slower/spreads through body/affects many cells/tissues in different ways/longer lasting

Nervous system

Endocrine System

69

This cell consists of several dendrites and a single (branched) axon, and a cell body

Neuron

70

This part of the neuron receives information and transfers it to the cell body

This part of the neuron transfers impulses away from the cell body

Dendrite

Axon

71

These are the nervous tissue support cells that are capable of cell division

These glial cells produce myelin in the CNS, which wraps many times around axons

These glial cells produce myelin in the PNS

Glial Cells

Oligodendrocytes

Schwann cells

72

In the nervous system, this acts as an insulator for neurons

What separates it?

Myelin Sheath

Nodes of Ranvier

73

Does an action potential travel continuously down an axon?

What is this conduction called?

No, it jumps from node to node, speeding up the impusle

Saltatory Conduction

74

Only what trpe of organisms have myelinated axons?

Myelinated axons appear what color?

Neuronal cell bodies appear

Vertebrates

White (white matter)

Gray (gray matter

75

These glial cells are the phagocytes of the CNS

These glial cells use cilia to circulate CSF

These support ganglia, aka groups of cell bodies in the PNS

These provide physical support to neurons of the CNS, maintaining mineral and nutrient balance

Microglia

Ependymal

Satellite cells

Astrocytes

76

There are three types of neurons, these receive the inital stimulus (ex: neurons in retina of the eye which go back to brain)

Sensory (afferent)

77

This type of neuron stimulates effectors, target cells that elicit some response

(ex: neurons may stimulate the muscles, sweat glands, or cells in the stomach to secrete gastrin) Goes from brain to muscle

Motor (efferent)

78

This type of neuron is located in the spinal cord and brain, it receives impulses from sensory neurons and sends impulses to motor neurons

The are _________, as they evaluate impulses for the appropriate response

What percent of nerves are this type?

Association Neurons (Interneuron)

Integrators

99%

79

99% of nerves are what type of neuron?

Interneurons

80

The membrane of an unstimulated neuron is _________

There is a high amount of ______ outside of the cell and high amount of ________ inside the cell

Which has a negative charge, inside the cell or outside the cell?

Polarized

Na+ outside the cell

K+ inside the cell

Inside the cell is negatively charged (~70 mV), due negatively charged proteins and nucleic acids residing with in the cell

81

Neuron membranes are selectively permeable to ______ as apposed to ______, which helps to maintain the polarization of the membrane

Selectively permeable to K+, as apposed to Na+, which helps maintain the polarization

82

This is term for the normal polarized state of the neuron

What is the charge in mV?

Resting Potential

-70mV (NEGATIVE 70 mV)

83

This is the stimulus phase of a nerve impulse, gated ions channels let _______ into the cell, which effectively depolarizes it

Action Potential

Na+ is let into the cell

84

In order for an action potential to occur, a _____ must be reached. Once it crosses this an action potential will occur. All or nothing!

What is the threshold value, approximately?

It results in the opening of what down the entire length of the neuron?

threshold

~-50mV

Voltage gated Na+ channels

85

After the action potential, in response to the Na+ flow in, more gated ion channels let _____ out of the cell, restoring polarization

BUT the Na+ is in and the K+ are out.

What phase of the nerve impulse is this

K+

Repolarization

86

By the time gated ion channels close in repolarization, too much ____ is released. This phase is known as

K+

Hyperpolarization

87

After hyperpolarization, the neuron will NOT respond to new stimulus until the Na+ and K+ pumps return the ions to their normal resting potential locations. This point of the nerve impulse is called the

If __________, an abnormally large stimuli can create an AP

ABSOLUTE Refractory period

RELATIVE

88

Note that the _____________ stage of the nerve impulse is what prevents the AP from moving backwards, even though ions are theoretically rushing in and diffusing in both directions

Refractory period

89

During the nerve impulse, from -70mV up to the threshold is the _____ that cannot travel, but it can potentially (if it surpasses threshold) open the voltage gated channels and this part is the action action potential

The other gated types cannot spread unless they trigger this AP.

Graded Potential (changes in membrane potential that vary in size as opposed to being all or nothing)

90

Since the action potential is all or nothing, what is the strength of a neural signal based on?

Frequency of firing or how many nervous cells contribute to APs, etc

91

Transmission of a nerve impulse occurs across a _______ from a _____ cell to a _____ cell

Synapse

Presynaptic cell to a post synaptic cell

92

In this type of synapse, an action potential travels along membranes of gap junctions (less common). It is fast, occurs in cardiac and smooth muscle

Electrical Synapse

93

In this type of synapse, which is most typical in animal cells, it is undirectional

Chemical Synapse

94

The first step of chemical synapse involves the opening of what gates caused by depolarization of the membrane?

Then, these release a neurotranmitter after the influx mentioned above

Ca(2+) gates

Synaptic Vessels

95

The NT binds with the postsynaptic receptor by release via what mechanism?

After the binding of NT to post synaptic receptor, the post synaptic membrane can be either ______ or _______

Diffusion through the membrane, then it binds the postsynaptic membrane

Excited or inhibited

96

In this type of response caused by a neurotransmitter, Na+ gates open and the membrane is depolarized

If the threshold is exceeded is the action potential inhibited or generated?

Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)

Generated

97

In this type of response caused by a NT, K gates open and the membrane becomes HYPERpolarized

If the threshold is exceeded is the action potential inhibited or generated?

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential

More difficult to generate action potential (inhibited)

98

What happens to the NT after it binds to the postsynaptic membrane?

Degraded and recycled by enzymes in the cleft.

99

This common NT is sercreted at neuromuscular joints for muscle contraction/relaxation

Everywhere else it has what effect?

Sympathetic or parasympathetic?

Acetylcholine

Inhibition

Parasympathetic

100

These common NTs are AA derived and secreted between neurons of CNS

Sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system?

Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (5HT)

Sympathetic Nervous system

101

This is an inhibitory NT among brain neurons

GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)

102

Greater diameter and more heavily myelinated axons will propogateFASTER/SLOWER impulses. Why?

Faster. Less resistance to flow of ions with greater diameter. More myelin means more saltatory conduction, the NA doesn't gradually diffuse outward (charge leakage) at every successive AP because of myelin wrapped sections so it goes straight from node to node

103

The NT may be taken back into the nerve terminal, is this passive or active transport?

It can also be degraded by synaptic cleft enzymes or diffuse out of the synapse

Active

104

This nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord

Central Nervous System

105

In the CNS, there is outer gray matter (cell bodies) and inner white matter (axons)

This is the largest and most important brain region which contains the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, thalamus, and hypothalamus

Brain

Forebrain

106

This part of the forebrain processes sensory input and is important for memory and creative thought

This part of the forebrain is important for smell

This part is important for relay with the spinal cord and cerebral cortex

This part is important for visceral function (water balance, blood pressure, temp regulation, hunger, thirst, sex)

Cerebral cortex

Olfactory Bulb

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

107

This part of the brain is the relay center for visual/auditory impulses; motor control

Midbrain

108

This is the posterior part of the brain

This part is important for the maintanence of balance, hand eye coordination, timing of rapid movements

this is the relay center to allow communication between cortex and cerebellum

Hindbrain

Cerebellum

Pons

109

This is the part of the hindbrain that is important for heart rate, GI activity, and breathing

Medulla oblongata

110

This structure of the brain consists of the midbrain + medulla oblongata + pons. It connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord

Brainstem

111

The spinal cord is made of white/inner gray matter.

Sensory info enters through the

All motor info exits through the

Dorsal Horn

Ventral Horn

112

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain with two hemispheres which is connected by the ______ which is a thick nerve bundle

Corpus Callosum

113

This lobe of the brain is involved in conscious thought, voluntary skeletal muscle movement

This part of the brain is involved in the sensory areas - temperature, touch, pressure, pain

This part is involved in hearing and smelling

This part is involved in vision

Frontal Lobe

Parietal Lobe

Temporal

Occipital

114

This nervous system consists of a sensory branch and a motor branch

The motor branch consists of the ____ and _____ nervous systems

Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic and Autonomic

115

This part of the motor PNS is responsible for voluntary movement of skeletal muscles

This part is responsible for involuntary movement, it innervates cardiac and smooth muscle

Somatic

Autonomic

116

This part of the autonomic nervous system controls the fight or flight response (high BP and HR)

Sympathetic

117

This part of the autonomic nervous system controls resting and digesting, it is the non-emergency (lower HR, digestion, relaxation, sexual arousal)

Parasympathetic

118

This is a rapid involuntary response to a stimulus involving two or three neurons, but the brain does not integrate the sensory and motor activities

Instead, they synapse at the

Reflex Arc (ex: knee jerk/patellar reflex)

Spinal Cord

119

There are 5 types of sensory receptors

These are for touch
These are for temperature
These are for pain
These are for light
These are for taste, smell, blood chemistry

Where do their neural pathways terminate, CNS or PNS?



Mechanoreceptors
Thermoreceptors
Nocireceptors
Electromagnetic receptors
Chemoreceptors

CNS

120

All nerves not directly inside the brain or spinal cord are part of the CNS/PNS

Cranial and spinal nerves come out of these structures and are part of the CNS/PNS

PNS

PNS