Flashcards in SECTION 3 AERODROME CONTROL 3 Deck (30):
The Royal Air Force has delegated the following airside safety management tasks to NATS;
1. Provision of Air Traffic Services
2. Aerodrome and Lighting Inspections
3. BCU Bird Control and dispersal
4. Monitoring WIP
5. Issuing Aerodrome Driving Permits
ATC staff who witness an incident/accident or any hazardous occurrence on any part of the aerodrome are required to report the incident to the RAF Duty Officer, in addition to completing their NATS / MOR required reporting actions.
ATC Aerodrome Surface Inspections
Aerodrome surface inspections are to be carried out by an ATCO (normally ADC).
One inspection is to take place as soon as practicable after staff arrival and must be completed before the aerodrome is opened for aircraft movements. When the aerodrome is operating 24 hours this inspection is to be made as soon as possible after first light.
An additional inspection is to be made before any night flying takes place, normally in conjunction with an Aerodrome lighting inspection.
The person carrying out the inspection should drive slowly over the area to be inspected, halting as necessary where individual items require closer inspection.
On completion the inspecting ATCO is to brief Watch Manager on the serviceability state and the results are to be annotated in the ATC Watch Log with details of any obstructions or unserviceabilities found.
Surface Inspection Criteria
Surface inspections are to include the manoeuvring area, prepared strips and aprons in order to ensure that:
A. Paved surfaces are clean and free from obstructions, debris or any signs of damage.
B. The sea walls are not damaged and sand or beach debris is not blowing on to the aerodrome
C. Runway and taxiway markings are clearly visible
D. Required Aerodrome lighting, including RWY strobes and VON lights are serviceable and clean.
E. Following a period of easterly winds the RW27 PAPIs and RW27 Sea Wall lights are not obscured by salt spray or sand.
F. Runway/taxiway indicator boards, distance to go marker boards.
G. MT Route traffic lights and signs are in place and working correctly.
H. VON and VOG loudspeakers are working correctly.
I. Bad ground is adequately marked and temporary obstructions are marked and lit.
J. Aircraft or vehicle debris are reported to ATC and removed for investigation.
K. Birds congregating, bird debris / remains or injured birds are reported to the BCU for removal.
Additional ATC Aerodrome Inspections
Additional surface inspections, which may be limited to specific areas of the Aerodrome, are to be carried out by an ATCO in the following circumstances:
A. When considered necessary by ATC.
B. On completion of work on the manoeuvring area.
C. When the BCU removes workers from the aerodrome, prior to aircraft movements.
D. Following an aircraft accident.
E. Following an aircraft structural failure or an abandoned take-off by a turbine- engine aircraft due to engine malfunction, or by any aircraft due to burst tyres.
F. Following any road traffic accident on WCA adjacent to the runway.
G. During any weather conditions that may affect the runway surfaces and aerodrome equipment i.e. storms which may deposit large amounts of sand and cause wind damage or heavy rain which may cause temporary flooding of the runway shoulders and extend on to the edges of the runway.
Additional BCU Inspections
Whenever BCU vehicles use the aerodrome they should maintain a constant watch for, and report to ATC, any of the following:
B. Broken or damaged light fittings
C. Damaged aerodrome surfaces or Security fences
D. Unauthorised vehicles and personnel
F. Any hazards caused by bird remains or concentrations of birds.
The following additional inspections may be delegated to the BCU, however if the BCU operator expresses any doubt about the serviceability of any part of the manoeuvring area, then the Aerodrome Controller is to immediately suspend operations on the area affected until ATC have carried out a further inspection and declared the area fit for flying:
a. Any area adjacent to shotgun firing.
b. An area of the manoeuvring area that may contain bird remains following an observed or reported bird strike.
c. Any area where the BCU removes workers from the aerodrome prior to aircraft movements.
6.6 ATC Aerodrome Lighting Inspections
The Aerodrome ATCO is to ensure that lighting inspections are carried out prior to the commencement of night flying, normally in conjunction with an aerodrome surface inspection. Aerodrome lighting inspections are to be carried out by an ATCO (normally the Aerodrome ATCO).
Aerodrome Lighting Inspection Criteria
The lighting inspections are to include all the required lighting for night aerodrome operations that is visible from the manoeuvring area. Lighting, such as the sea bed mounted approach lighting, which is not visible from the manoeuvring area, will be subject to routine inspection by the Duty Aerodrome Electrician.
Inspections will include:
1. Taxiway, runway and apron lighting.
2. Apron Floodlighting, including obstruction lights.
3. Distance to go lighting marker boards.
4. Visible 09 approach buoy
5. Sea wall lights
7. 430 mole marine light
8. Strobe lights including the VON strobe lights.
9. Visible marine lighting.
10. Aerodrome obstruction lighting including the 430 anemometer, AFRS fire section, ATC tower and standby transmitter mast.
The RAF is responsible for decisions regarding the operational status of the aerodrome including the aprons and manoeuvring areas in respect of:
A. Routine operational limitations, e.g. runway maintenance
B. Unforeseen hazards to aircraft operations, e.g. deteriorating surface conditions, obstructions etc.
The Stn Cdr or RAF Duty Officer will normally make decisions on behalf of the MOD regarding:
1. The closure or re-opening of the aerodrome.
2. The withdrawal or return to use of runways, taxiways and associated lighting aids.
3. The revision of declared distances.
4. Any marking required in connection with the above.
5. Initiating NOTAM action to promulgate changes in serviceability.
ATC Responsibility for WIP
Watch Managers are to inform the RAF Duty Flying Officer immediately it becomes apparent from reports or observations that there is a hazard to the movement of aircraft on the apron or manoeuvring area.
The RAF may take some time to assess the situation. During this period Watch Managers are to decide the action to take according to the circumstances:
1. Where an operational occurrence has resulted in an obstruction in the vicinity of the runway in use.
2. Withhold take-off and landing clearance when the obstruction is within the cleared and graded area of the runway.
3. Withhold take-off and landing clearance if there is any doubt as to the position of the obstruction. Pilots will be advised of the reason for withholding clearance together with the position and nature of the obstruction.
4. When the obstruction is obviously outside the cleared and graded area but on or in the vicinity of the apron or manoeuvring area the pilot will be advised of the position and nature of the obstruction. It is the responsibility of the pilot to decide whether or not to continue operations.
5. When the RAF Duty Officer has decided the operational status of the apron or manoeuvring area they will inform the Watch Manager.
6. Seville ACC should be informed of any situations which may restrict operations at the aerodrome.
Aerodrome Areas which affect Aircraft Movements
Any WIP in the following defined areas will affect aircraft operations. WIP outside the areas designated above may still affect aircraft movements if high vehicles or cranes or tall structures are involved. If any doubt exists then advice should be sought from the RAF.
A. Runway strip + RESA. This equates to the full length of the runway from sea wall to sea wall out to 75M from runway centreline. As a guide this includes the runway and shoulders.
B. Taxiway Strip. 40.5m each side of centreline /17m from taxiway edge.
C. Apron Strip. 15m from edge of paved surface.
These procedures are to be applied whenever WIP is carried out in the defined areas of this instruction. However, these requirements do not apply to
the Duty Aerodrome Electrician carrying out routine inspection or maintenance of the AGL or PAPI installations.
The MOD ISP, MOD Janitorial services and MOD Joint Utilities Group
The MOD ISP, MOD Janitorial services and MOD Joint Utilities Group are exempt from the requirements of 7.9 WIP Protocols and do not need to complete a WIP form prior to commencement of work.
For purposes of WIP the airfield is divided into two distinct zones:
Runway Strip + RESA: This includes the full length of the runway from sea wall to sea wall and the runway strip which extends 75M laterally from runway centreline. This includes the runway and shoulders.
Taxiways and Taxiway Strips: This includes all taxiways and the strips which extend 40.5M laterally from the taxiway Centreline.
Clearways of both runways, regardless of the runway in use.
7.5.2 Zone 2
All areas of the airfield not included in Zone 1
Zone 1 WIP
Any WIP other than essential maintenance should be carried out outside airfield opening hours. When this is not possible consideration should be given to closure of part of the Airfield to permit the WIP to continue during opening hours. NOTAM action is to be taken.
Under normal circumstances all working parties must be radio equipped (Tetra). Foremen are to be briefed that the radio operator must remain with the working party for the duration of the works. Failure of the radio, or inability of the operator to communicate clearly, will result in the work authorisation being cancelled and the workers withdrawn from the airfield.
Only in exceptional circumstances when emergency repairs are required (7.10 Emergency Repairs), and following agreement between the Watch Manager and the Duty Officer (DO), are work parties to be permitted to work in Zone 1 without a radio during airfield opening hours. In this case contractors must be escorted to and from the site of the WIP by a radio equipped vehicle.
Normally only one working party will be permitted access to the manoeuvring area at any one time, although exceptionally the Watch Manager may authorise additional parties.
For WIP within ZONE 1 the procedures detailed below are to be applied in their entirety except where specific exemptions are made.
Ref: WIP Authorisation Form - GIB/FORM/021
The following procedure will be used to complete the WIP Form:
1. The WIP authorisation form will be brought to ATC by the contractor, after RAF Operations have signed Section 2 of the form approving the works in principal. Final approval is dependant on the following stages taking place.
2. ATC and the contractor will together complete Section 4 of the form and when agreement is reached both will sign acceptance in Section 3. Section 4 need not be completed for works taking place outside of airfield operating hours
3. Two copies of pages 1 and 2 of the form will be made and issued to the contractor. ATC will retain the complete original.
4. Permission to enter Zone 1 must always be obtained by t
Zone 1 Works – Pre Planning
Notification of any WIP is to be provided to ATC by the work supervisor/foreman.
A. Prior to the commencement of the WIP the supervisor/foreman will visit the VCR and brief the Aerodrome Controller, and if necessary the Watch Manager, on the extent of the WIP. The Aerodrome Controller will brief the supervisor/foreman of all ATC requirements affecting the working party, and complete a WIP Authorisation Form.
B. Where work is planned to take place over a number of days the foreman is to be instructed to visit the tower each morning to receive any briefing updates. Details of the initial briefing will be entered into the WIP Authorisation Form Section 4 (except for works outside airfield operating hours), which will be signed by both parties. The form is to be photocopied, with the Aerodrome Controller retaining one copy and the supervisor/foreman the other.
Emergency repairs are defined as works carried out in order to make essential repairs to, or correct a fault, which is impacting on the safe operation of the airfield.
Commencement Of Work - Non Radio Equipped (Emergency Repair) Work Parties
A. No WIP will commence until 15 minutes after any aircraft departure. Working Parties will be escorted to the site by a radio equipped vehicle.
B. ADC will monitor the WIP from the VCR and may stop the WIP if FOD is observed, and not being managed correctly in the area of the WIP.
C. ADC, in coordination with the BCU, will assess whether or not the WIP is attracting bird activity.
D. Working parties will be instructed to vacate the manoeuvring area in sufficient time for the area to be made available and in a suitable condition for aircraft
movements at least 1 hour prior to the next planned movement. This timing should be based on either black or red times as available.
E. Working Parties will be instructed to vacate by the dispatch of a radio equipped vehicle which will provide an escort until the working party has vacated.
F. Once the work party has vacated, the area must be inspected by ATC/ the BCU or the RAF Duty officer.
G. Inspections carried out by BCU must not prejudice their primary task.
H. ADC will notify the Watch Manager of any problems with the WIP. The Watch Manager will bring any problems to the immediate attention of the RAF Duty Officer.
I. Works are not to be permitted in ZONE 1 if Gibraltar is acting as a flight planned nominated diversion.
Commencement Of Work - Radio Equipped Work Parties
A. No WIP will commence until 15 minutes after any aircraft departure.
B. Working parties must contact ADC on TETRA and request permission to enter the manoeuvring area and commence WIP.
C. ADC will monitor the WIP from the VCR and may stop the WIP if FOD is observed, and not being managed correctly in the area of the WIP.
D. ADC, in coordination with the BCU, will assess whether or not the WIP is attracting bird activity.
E. Working parties will be instructed to vacate the manoeuvring area in sufficient time for the area to be made available and in a suitable condition for aircraft movements at least 45 minutes prior to the next planned movement. This timing should be based on either the black or red times.
The MoD Infrastructure Service provider may be exempted from this requirement at the discretion of the Duty Aerodrome ATCO where it is deemed that works do not require the use of heavy plant and where it can be established that the area of works can be quickly, and safely vacated by the working party. Examples of such work would be painting and overbanding.
Details of such agreements shall be logged in the watch log. All WIP requirement established in the MMATM are still applicable.
F. Once the work party has vacated, the area must be inspected by ATC/ the BCU or the RAF DO.
G. Inspections carried out by BCU must not prejudice their primary task.
H. The working party must advise the Aerodrome Controller on TETRA when the WIP is finally complete and the manoeuvring area vacated.
I. ADC will notify the Watch Manager of any problems with the WIP. The Watch Manager will bring any problems to the immediate attention of the RAF DO.
Key protocols with the Gibraltar Defence Police
A. ATC will retain the keys to all airside gates throughout the operational hours of the airfield.
B. The Watch Manager will hand the keys to a GDP officer when the airfield closes, or at other times with appropriate coordination. Both parties will sign for the exchange, acknowledging the transaction by signing GIB/FORM/013.
C. The GDP will arrange the on site access for working parties. If Zone 1 access is required during airfield operating hours, approval must still be obtained from ATC by radio.
D. Prior to the airfield opening, the GDP will return the keys to the Watch Manager, both parties will sign for the exchange, GDP will sign as having determined that the airside site is clear of personnel and equipment. The morning ATC inspection will corroborate this and ascertain that the area is fit for purpose. The airfield will not be opened for aircraft movements until both procedures are complete.
8.1.1 Full Runway Evaluation
Weather permitting; a Full Runway Evaluation is to be made at least once every 6 months in wet weather to assess any deterioration in runway conditions. The test must be carried out during moderate to heavy rainfall after the runway surface has been thoroughly wetted and standing water ponds have had time to form. Specific details of the methodology of these tests are contained in the above reference.
Aircraft Incident / Accident MUMETER
Aircraft Incident / Accident
Whenever there is an aircraft accident/incident on the runway, where a possibility exists that the surface conditions may have been a contributing factor, a full evaluation of those sections of the runway considered to be associated with the incident/accident is to be carried out and records of readings and traces are to be retained. The Post Crash Management Procedures may later require more detailed inspections of the runway surface.
Reports of Water on the Runway
When ADC becomes aware of the presence of water on a runway, either by observation, reports from pilots, the Met office, vehicles or personnel they are to:
1. Carry out as assessment of the runway surface used by aircraft for take off and landing.
2. Inform the Approach Controller
3. Pass the information to Pilots
Assessment of Water on the Runway
When reported, the presence or otherwise of surface water on a runway will be assessed over the most significant portion of the runway, i.e. the area most likely to be used by aircraft taking-off and landing. At Gibraltar this will include the entire runway length from the commencement of one set of threshold markings until the end of the threshold markings at the other end of the runway.
The assessment is to be made by one of the following methods:
1. ATC inspection from the aerodrome.
2. ATC observation from the VCR. See 8.6.
Reporting Runway Surface Conditions
Dry The surface is not affected by water, slush, snow, or ice.
NOTE: Reports that the runway is dry are not normally to be passed to pilots. If no runway surface report is passed, pilots will assume the surface to be dry.
Damp The surface shows a change of colour due to moisture.
NOTE: If there is sufficient moisture to produce a surface film or the surface appears reflective, the runway will be reported as WET.
Wet The surface is soaked but no significant patches of standing water are visible.
NOTE: Standing water is considered to exist when water on the runway surface is deeper than 3mm. Patches of standing water covering more than 25% of the assessed area will be reported as WATER PATCHES.
Water Patches Significant patches of standing water are visible.
NOTE: Water patches will be reported when more than 25% of the assessed area is covered by water more than 3mm deep.
Flooded Extensive patches of standing water are visible.
NOTE: Flooded will be reported when more than 50% of the assessed area is covered by water more than 3mm deep.
Surface condition reports derived from an ATC inspection will be treated in the same manner as those derived from RAF Operations. Such reports will include conditions in each third of the assessed area, sequentially, for the runway in use and be communicated to aircraft using the phrase:
“(Callsign) Runway (XX) surface is (damp, wet, damp)”
However, when an observation is derived from the VCR or a pilot’s report, communication will be prefixed by the phrase “Unofficial Observation” and a single term used for the entire runway length. For example:
“(Callsign) Unofficial observation from the control tower, the runway 27 surface condition appears to be wet”