Section 3: Foundational Knowledge: Super Hard Flashcards Preview

BCBA Exam Prep > Section 3: Foundational Knowledge: Super Hard > Flashcards

Flashcards in Section 3: Foundational Knowledge: Super Hard Deck (81):

Discrimination vs. Generalization 


  • occurs when a limited spectrum of stimuli occasion a response
  • narrow stimulus control 
  • Ex: child says "mommy" only to her mom and not other women 


  • occurs when a large spectrum of stimuli occasion certain responses 
  • critical element to survival of species 
  • Ex: child says "woman" when she sees any female even though they all look different 


2 Types of Generalization 

  1. Stimulus Generalization 
  2. Response Generalization (Response Induction) 


Stimulus Generalization 

  • Responding to antecedent stimuli sharing certain aspects of the original SD;  broadening of the spectrum of stimuli that occasion a certain response
  • The individual responds to something in the same way that resembles the original thing from which they learned 
  • 1 response to various SDs
  • Ex: child sees any animal with a tail and says kitty
  • Ex. You say "what's up" to all of your friends 
  • To program for stimulus generalization, you want to use multiple exemplars 

A image thumb


(referring to stimulus generalization) 

  • emitting a response appropriate to some concept in an inappropriate context 
  • Ex: calling all women mommy


Response Generalization 

(Response Induction) 

  • The extent to which an individual exhibits novel responses that are functionally equivalent to the trained target response 
  • The effects of intervention are expanded from a targeted response to a similar non-targeted response 
  • the form of the response changes but the SD remains the same 
  • INDUCTION = INTRODUCTION of new responses 
  • ex. taught to fold socks into a ball and generalizes to folding them in a knot 
  • Response generalization is how we SHAPE behavior
    • Ex. teaching a child to draw a line. Initially, you will reinforce crooked lines but then will only reinforce closer approximations to a straight line 

A image thumb

How to Plan for Generalization 

  • Select Target Behaviors that will meet with Natural Contingencies of Reinforcement 
    • behaviors must be functional 
    • behaviors must generate reinforcers after intervention ends (Relevance of Behavior Rule
  • Specify all desired variations of the behavior and the situations in which it should (and should not) occur after intervention has ended 
    • list all behaviors that need to be changed
    • list all situations and whether it should or should not occur 
    • do this in the PLANNING stage 



Two Types of Contingencies 

Naturally Existing Contingency- any contingency of reinforcement or punishment that operates independent of your efforts in the generalization setting 

Contrived Contingency - any contingency designed by you to acheive acquistion, maintenace, and/or generalization of a behavior change 


7 Strategies to Promote Generalization 


  1. Program Common Stimuli 
  2. Train Loosely 
  3. Multiple Exemplars 
  4. Mediation 
  5. Indiscriminable Contingencies 
  6. Negative Teaching Examples 
  7. General Case Analysis (General Case Strategy) 


Program Common Stimuli 

(one of the 7 Stratigies to Promote Generalization) 

  • The likelihood that the correct response will be occasioned in the generalization setting is increased if there is a lot of similarity between the instructional setting and the generalization setting 
  • ensuring the same SDs exist in the instructional and generalization settings 
  • Ex. if you are teaching someone how to make a purchase in the store, you need to create a mini store in the instructional setting with has many realistic elements as possible 


Train Loosely

(one of the 7 Stratigies to Promote Generalization) 

  • Expanding the heterogeneity of SDs
  • non critical elements of the teaching setting are altered in arbitrary ways 
  • Decreases the likelihood narrow or non critical stimulus control occurs 
  • Methods- teach in different areas of the client's house, teach wearing different clothes and hair styles, vary your tone of voice when you say SDs


Multiple Exemplars

(one of the 7 Stratigies to Promote Generalization) 

(Teach Suffcient Examples; Multiple Exemplar Training)

  • provide the client with opportunities to respond correctly to multiple examples of antecedent stimuli 
    • Ex. teach bye, see you later, peace out. and farewell
  • provide multiple response examples



(one of the 7 Stratigies to Promote Generalization) 

  • instruct others (MEDIATORS) who will help maintain and generalize the newly acquired behaviors 
  • ETHICS WARNING: it is your responsibility to collaborate with others to maintain the client's progress after your services terminate 
  • Ex. after teaching greetings at home, make sure it is practiced in school with teachers and peers 


Indiscriminable Contingencies 

(one of the 7 Stratigies to Promote Generalization) 

  • contingencies in which an individual is NOT able to discriminate (INDISCRIMINABLE)  when his/her responses will be reinforced 
  • this way behaviors continue at a high rate 
  • making contingencies unclear in the generalization setting 
  • 2 ways to create:
    • Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement 
      • use CRF initially then switch to INT
      • all indiscriminable contingencies involve INT schedules but not all INT schedules are indiscriminable 
    • Delayed Rewards 

A image thumb

Negative Teaching Examples

(one of the 7 Stratigies to Promote Generalization) 

  • instructing clients regarding settings, times, and conditions in which it is NOT appropriate to dispay a certain behavior 
  • "don't do it" exemplars strengthen discrimination skills 
  • ex. when it's appropriate to say a dirty joke 


General Case Analysis 

(General Case Strategy)

  • Ensuring that you are teaching all the different stimulus variations and response variations the individual may encounter in the generalization, post intervention enviornment 
  • helps the individual to learn the similarities of stimuli within a stimulus class and the differences of stimuli within that same stimulus class 
  • Ex. If you are teaching doing laundry, you need to train on multiple laundry machine variations 


Terminating Successful Interventions 

  • must systematically terminate successful interventions 
  • one should assess:
    • how intricate the intervention is
    • how quickly did the intervention produce the desired change for the individual 
    • the availability of natural contingencies of reinforcement for that newly acquired skill 
  • from the very beginning, you want to attempt to reduce the need to plan for generalization at the end 
  • prior to, during, and following an intervention, probe for generalization
  • mediators should have responsibility in the generalization process 



(Response Maintenance) 

  • following the removal of an intervention, the extent to which a particular response remains in the individual's repertoire over time
  • Program for maintenance:
    • use intermittent/variable reinforcement because these schedules are more resistent to extintion 


Private Events

  • events taking place inside the skin
  • thoughts and feelings 
  • private events ARE behaviors too 
  • they are accessible only to the individual 
  • ex. headache 


Verbal Behavior

  • Behavior that is reinforced through the mediation of another person's behavior
    • communication that helps individuals get what they desire and avoid what is undesireable 
  • Verbal behavior is defined by the function of the response, not the topography 
  • Any response form (vocal, non-vocal, written, sign language, etc) are verbal behavior
  • Verbal behavior involves the social interaction between the speaker and listener:
    • Speaker- gains access to reinforcement and controls their environment through the behavior of the listener (Skinner's VB focuses on the listener) 
    • Listener- must learn how to reinforce the speaker's verbal behavior (responds to words and interact with the speaker)


Form vs. Function of Verbal Behavior


The formal properties of language involve their topographies (classifying words as nouns, verbs, prepositions, etc)



The effects of the response 


Verbal Operant Definition and 6 types

  • A verbal operant is the unit of analysis in verbal behavior 
  • MO/SD → Response → Consequence 


6 Types of ELEMENTARY Verbal Operants: EMITTT

  1. Echoic
  2. Mand 
  3. Intraverbal 
  4. Tact
  5. Textual 
  6. Transcription 


Verbal Repertoire

a set of verbal operants emitted by someone


How are verbal operants used as the basis for language assessment?

  • You should assess the current effectiveness of each verbal operant your client has
  • individual operants constitute the basis for building more advanced language behavior 
  • start by obtaining information about the client's mand repoirtoire before moving onto the other elementary operants 
  • may need to firmly establish repertoires for each verbal operant before moving onto the next 
  • conduct a VB MAPP 
  • funtional analysis of verbal behavior is ongoing 
  • you must demonstrate what the correct source of control should be and how that source can be established 



(Verbal Imitation) 

(one of the 6 elementary verbal operants) 

  • A type of verbal operant that occurs when the speaker repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker 
  • repeating, echoicing, vocally imitating 
  • The echoic operant is controlled by the VERBAL DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS (Verbal SD
    • ​whatever the speaker said controls what the listener is going to say 
  • Echoic behavior produces generalized conditioned reinforcement (GCSR)- praise, attention, etc. 
  • The Verbal SD has two things in common with the response:
    • Point to point correspondence 
    • Formal Similarity 


Point to Point Correspondence 

(as related to echoics) 

When the beginning, middle, and end of the verbal stimulus match the beginning, middle, and end of the response 


ex. Saying “fox” as the result of seeing the word “fox” is an example of point-to-point correspondence. It makes no difference whether the stimulus is auditory or visual. It also makes no difference whether the response is vocal or written. Writing “fox” as the result of hearing someone say “fox” still illustrates point-to-point correspondence.

A image thumb

Formal Similarity 

(as it relates to echoics) 

  • When the controlling antecedent stimulus and the response share the same sense mode (visual, auditory, tacticle) and phsyically look exactly the same 
    • can be sign language or written as well 

A image thumb

Echoic Training

  • Echoic training involves bringing verbal responses under the functional control of verbal SDs that have point to point correspondence and formal similarity with the response 
  • Goal- enable the speaker to repeat your sounds and eventually transfer the response form to other more advanced verbal operants 
  • Teach echoics using SHAPING 
    • the teacher presents a vocal verbal stimulus and reinforcers the individual's successive approximations toward the sample 
      • Ex: Teacher says "hat" and differentially reinforces sounds that progressively match the same "h," "ha," until "hat" is achieved 
  • For beinging echoics, choose simple one syllable sounds that are in the client's repertoire 
  • Echoics are taught systematically 
    • start with oral motor imitation- build physical strength (blowing, etc) 
  • Prompt Levels
    • Physical (hands on face to gradually shape mouth formations) 



​(one of the 6 elementary verbal operants) 

  • A type of verbal operant in which the speaker asks for what they want 
    • occurs due to a state of deprivation or aversive stimulation 
  • Manding is reinforced by attaining the manded items 
  • Allows the listener to infer what EO may be affecting the speaker ("close the window" = the speaker is cold) 
  • Mands are the first verbal operants acquired by humans 


Mand Training 

  • this is the first verbal operant to teach because it is the first we acquire as human beings and it leads to more language development 
  • Mand training involves bringing verbal responses under the functional control of MOs 
  • How to Initiate Mand Training
    • Assess: 
      • client's motivation 
      • the time when motivation is strong 
      • if you can control and contrive the motivation 
    • Next, make a list of potential motivators and their reinforcers and select beginning mands:
      • items that have strong motivation and do not lose effectiveness quickly
      • items that you can control access to 
      • items that can be available for a short period of time initially 
      • items that are easy to deliver and/or remove
      • words involving a response form already in the client's repertoire (e.g. echoic) 
  • Complex Mands:
    • using mands with adjectives and prepositions 
    • increased length 
    • Manding for:
      • information "whats your name"
      • attention "watch me jump"
      • people to do things for you "get me water" 


2 Types of Mands

  • Regular Mand
    • mands that can actually be reinforced 
  • Extended Mand
    • emitting mands to objects or animals that cannot possibly supply an appropriate response
      • Two types:
        • Supersitious Mand 
        • Magical Mand 


Superstitious Mand


  • an extended mand in which reinforcement sometimes occurs incidentally 
  • Ex: your car won't start and you say, "Come on!" and sometimes it starts so you are intermittently reinforced for manding 


Magical Mand

  • an extended mand in which the reinforcement has NEVER occured in the past
  • wishing
  • Ex: "I wish I had a million dollars" 
  • Ex: Telling your cat to make you dinner 



​(one of the 6 elementary verbal operants) 

  • A verbal operant in which the speaker differentially responds to other people 
  • answering a question 
  • The intraverbal operant occurs when a verbal SD evokes a verbal response that does NOT have point to point correspondence with the verbal stimulus 
  • allows a person to talk about and think about things that are not physically present 
  • Intraverbal produces GCSRs 
  • Ex: Saying "BATCAGE" when asked, What are the seven dimensions of ABA?
  • Ex: hearing Skinner and writing Radical Behaviorism 


Intraverbal Training 

  • Intraverbal training involves bringing verbal responses under the functional control of verbal SDs that lack point to point correspondence 
  • Prerequisites- client must have acquired 50 mands and tacts 
  • How to teach intraverbal behavior: 
    • Use prompting, fading, and chaining 
    • Focus on the interests of the learner and manipulate the EOs 
    • Teach in the natural environment 
    • Continue teaching new mands and tacts simultaneously 
    • For beginning intraverbal behavior: 
      • fill in the blanks with favorite songs
      • teaching the client to give their name, gender, etc. 
      • Use object and animal sounds 
      • Use common associations (you sleep in a...)
      • Wh-questions (what do you eat with?)
    • Intraverbals should be taught systematically
      • teaching in the natural environment fosters generalization 
      • teach short sessions (1 to 15 minutes) 
      • conduct training on the floor, table, playground 



​(one of the 6 elementary verbal operants) 

  • The tact is a verbal operant in which the speaker names things an actions that the speaker has direct contact with through any of the sense modes 
  • Labeling the environment when the object, evbent, stimulus is PRESENT IN THE ENVIRONMENT
  • Tacts are controlled by a NONVERBAL SD
  • Produces GCSRs 
  • Ex. smelling smoke and saying "someone is smoking"
  • Ex. seeing a fire truck and saying "fire truck" 


Tact Training

  • Tact training involves brining verbal responses under the functional control of nonverbal SDs
  • Prerequisites 
    • Echoics
    • some labeling of vocabulary
    • 5 to 10 mands that occur without echoic prompts 
  • How to Teach Tacts 
    • Start with IMPURE TACTS: "what is that?" or "what do you see?" 
      • it's part tact and part intraverbal since it has a verbal and non verbal SD
    • move to PURE TACTS
    • continue mand training simultaneously and intersperse trials 
    • for beginning tacts, choose words 
      • that were used in mand training
      • 3 dimensional nouns that are related to the client 
      • nouns that are easy to present and manage in teaching sessions 
  • Tacts should be taught systematically 
    • Teach with a mand component- Present a cookie and say "What is it?" and reinforcer with the cookie 
    • Teach without a mand component- Present a picture of a cookie and ask "what is it?" and reinforce with something unrelated 


Tact Extensions

(Extended Tacts) 

  • there is not one name for one thing; there are many ways to describe the same thing 
  • a new stimulus being similar to another known stimulus may evoke a response like the original stimulus 
  • the distinction is based on the degree to which a novel stimulus shares features with the original stimulus 
  • 4 Types: SMMG- studying makes me grim
    1. ​​Solistic Extension 
    2. Metaphorical Extension 
    3. Metonymical Extension 
    4. Generic Extension 


Solistic Extension

(one of the 4 types of extended tacts) 

  • A tact that is indirectly related to the proper label and that evokes a substandard verbal behavior. A child labeling car, when they are referring to the driver of a car.
  • poor use of language 
  • substandard verbal behavior
  • slang 
  • Ex. "You speak good" 
  • Ex. "That m&m eats yummy" 


Metaphorical Extension 

(one of the 4 types of extended tacts) 

  • Metaphors 
  • The novel stimulus shares some but not all of the features associated with the original stimulus 
  • Ex. His heart is as black as coal 
  • Ex. That m&m is as sweet as pie 


Metonymical Extension 

(one of the 4 types of extended tacts) 

  • Verbal responses to novel stimuli that share NONE of the relvant features of the original stimulus, but some irrelvant but RELATED feature has acquired stimulus control 
  • Ex. saying water when shown an empty cup 
  • saying bag when shown an m&m 


Generic Extension 

(one of the 4 types of extended tacts) 

GENeric = GENeralization

  • the novel stimulus shares ALL of the relevant or defining features of the original stimulus
  • this is the same thing as stimulus generalization 
  • Ex: Saying "Winchell's donut shop is closed" when looking at a dunkin donus closed sign 
  • saying "skittle" when shown an m&m 



​(one of the 6 elementary verbal operants) 

  • Reading without any implications that the reader understand what is being read 
    • (understanding involves intraverbal behavior and receptive language)
  • The textual operant occurs when a verbal SD has point to point correspondence but NO formal similarity between the stimulus and the response
  • Produces GCSRs 
  • Ex. seeing the written word pizza and saying "pizza" 



​(one of the 6 elementary verbal operants) 

Transcribe = Transcription 

  • writing and spelling words spoken to you
  • The transcription operant occurs when a spoken verbal SD controls a written, typed, or finger spelled response. 
  • There is point to point correspondence between the stimulus and the response but NO formal similarity 
  • Ex. hearing "Yetti" and writing yetti on a piece of paper 


How to figure out which verbal operant is depected in a test question 

Look at the antecedent and consequent variables 

  • all produce GCSRs except for mands which produce the item manded for 
  • Mand is the only one under the control of an MO
  • Tact is under the control of a NONVERBAL SD
  • Intraverbal, Transcription, Echoic are all under the control of a VERBAL SD
  • Textual is under the control of a visual or tactile stimulus 

A image thumb



a code has point to point correspondence but NO formal similarity 

  • 3 Defining Features
    • Verbal SD: the response form is controlled by a verbal stimulus 
    • has point to point correspondence 
    • does NOT have formal similarity 
    • Textual: seeing written word "armadillo" and speaking "armadillo"
      • Verbal SD- yes, the written text is the verbal SD
      • Point to Point Correspondence- yes, the beginning, middle, and end of both the written and the spoken word "armadillo" match 
      • Formal Similarity- NO, two different sense modes- written and spoken 
    • Transcription: hearing "FTS" and writing, typing, finger spelling "FTS"
      • Verbal SD- yes, hearing "FTS" is the verbal SD
      • Point to Point Correspondence- yes, the beginning, middle, and end of both the spoken phrase "FTS" and written word match
      • Formal Similarity- NO, two different sense modes- spoken and written 
  • Another Example: Reading a book written in braille aloud 





It's a duo of both point to point correspondence and formal similarity

  • 3 Defining Features:
    • Verbal SD: the response form is controlled by a verbal stimulus 
    • has point to point correspondence 
    • has formal similarity 
  • ECHOIC is a duplic- hear "OMFG" and say "OMFG" 
    • Verbal SD- yes, the spoken word is the verbal SD
    • Point to Point Correspondence- yes, the beginning, middle, and end match 
    • Formal Similarity- yes, the same sense mode- spoken 
  • Another example is imitating someone else's sign language 


Listener Training

  • often the speaker and listener are the same person 
    • this means the listener behaves simultaneously as a speaker 
      • conversations--the speaker asks a question, then the lister responds by providing an intraverbal or echoic--so now the listener is acting as the speaker 
  • a verbal episode requires a speaker and listener 
  • The role of the listener is as a mediator of reinforcement for the speaker's behavior 
  • The listener acts as an SD for the speaker's behavior--the audience for verbal behavior 
  • UNDERSTANDING- Skinner's term for a certain type of listener behavior in which the listener provides a non-verbal response to a verbal SD
    • Ex. speaker: shut the door. listener shuts the door 
    • Ex. speaker: point to red. listener points to red. 



Auto = Self

  • Verbal behavior about one's own verbal behavior 
  • A SECONDARY verbal operant in which some aspect of a speaker's own verbal behavior functions as an SD or MO for additional speaker verbal behavior 
  • A form of verbal behvior that modifies other forms of verbal behavior 
  • Effects are very RAPID and usually occur in the emission of a SINGLE SENTENCE composed of two levels of responding 
  • Ex. A primary intraverbal, such as an answer to the question about the sale of a product may contain an autoclitic, as in, "I'm sure you'll be please with the sale," in which, "I'm sure you'll be pleased" is controlled by the same MO that might control the response "Don't ask me for any details about the sale." 
  • Ex. Child and father are secretly wrapping mom's Christmas present... the child's statement, "I see mommy!" contains an autoclitic. The primary verbal operant (the tact) is the nonverbal SD of (A) the child's mother, (B) the response, "mommy," and (C) the associated reinforcement history. The secondary verbal operant (which is the autoclitic tact) is the speaker's tact informing that a nonverbal SD evoked the primary verbal operant. The nonverbal SD was the visual stimulus of the child's mother and the response, "I see" informs the listener of the source of control that evoked the primary tact. It's also saying, "we better hurry up and hide this present."
  • Ex. "Don't look now, but I think I see Wendy with her new girlfriend." The autoclitic involves verbal responses for which the functional properties of the speaker's ongoing verbal behavior provide the SD such as "Who is she?" 


Schedules of Reinforcement 

  • a rule that describes a contingency of reinforcement 
    • the environmental arrangements that determine conditions by which behaviors will be reinforced 
  • continuous reinforcement (CRF), intermittent reinforcement (INT) and extinction (EXT)

A image thumb

Continuous Reinforcement

  • CRF provides reinforcement for every occurrence of the target behavior. 
  • Utilized for strengthening novel behaviors when teaching is first initiated for a new skill that is being acquired 
  • Ex. FR1 schedule
  • Ex. flipping on a light switch turns on the light every time 


Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement

  • in INT, some but not all behaviors are reinforced
  • used for maintaining behaviors that have already been acquired 
  • helsp to fade from artificial to natural reinforcement 
  • Ex. lottery, slot machines, finding parking at Trader Joes 


4 Basic Schedules of Intermittent Reinforcement

Fixed Ratio

Variable Ratio

Fixed Interval 

Variable Interval 

A image thumb

4 Basic Schedules of Reinforcement Graph

A image thumb

Fixed Ratio 

FRench Staircase

  • one of the basic schedules of INT
  • Fixed = constant, set criteria 
  • Ratio = a certain number of occurrences of the behavior have to occur before one response produces reinforcement 
  • Ex. FR4: reinforcement is delivered after every 4th correct response 
  • Pattern of Responding:
    • client completes required responses with little hesitation
    • Post reinforcement pause follows reinforcement 
      • occurs when the individual does not respond for certain time following reinforcement 
      • the size of the ratio influences the duration of the post reinforcement pause 
        • large ratios = long pauses 
        • short ratios = short pauses 
  • Rates of Responding Procued by FR Schedules
    • FR schedules often produce high rates of response because quick responding produce a faster rate of reinforcement. 
    • the larger the ratio requirement, the higher the rate of response 


Fixed Ratio Graph

the only graph with steps - FRench Staircase

A = post reinforcement pause 

B = high rate of responding 

C = contingency is met and reinforcement is provided 


Variable Ratio 

The STRONGEST basic schedule 


  • Variable = changing, variable criteria; average; mean of responses 
  • Ratio = a number of occurences of the target behavior have to occur before one response produces reinforcement 
  • ex. VR4: reinforcement is delivered after an AVERAGE of every fourth correct response 
  • ex. slot machines 
  • Pattern of Responding:
    • produces consistent, high, steady rates of responses 
    • does NOT produce a post reinforcement pause--there's no information about when the next response will produce reinforcement, so responding continues 
  • Rate of response produced:
    • fast rate of response (like FR schedules) 
    • the larger the ratio requirement, the faster the rate of response (like FR schedules) 


Variable Ratio Graph 

the steepest graph: the Vegas graph



A = high rate of responding 

B = contingency is met and reinforcement is provided 

A image thumb

Fixed Interval 

FI = FISH Scallops 

  • one of the basic schedules of INT reinforcement 
    • Fixed = constant set criteria 
    • Interval = specific amount of time elapses before a single correct response produces reinforcement 
    • ex. FI 5: reinforcement is delivered after the first correct response that occurs after 5 minutes has elapsed
  • Pattern of responding:
    • produces post reinforcement pause only during the early part of the interval 
    • at the end of the interval there is an FI SCALLOP which is a graudually accelerating rate of responding toward the end of the interval 
  • Rate of response produced:
    • slow to moderate 
    • the larger the fixed interval requirement, the longer the post reinforcement pause 


Fixed Interval Graph

FI = FISH Scallops 

the slowest rate of responding graph

  • the beginning of the scallop is the post reinforcement pause 
  • the end of the scallop is the increase in responding 
  • ex. weekly tests on Mondays. You're not going to study at all on Tuesdays = post reinforcement pause
    • On Friday, you'll start studying
    • on Saturday, you'll start studying more
    • and study a whole lot on Sunday = end of scallop

A image thumb

Variable Interval 

VIP - Very Important Pop Quiz

  • one the basic schedules of INT reinforcement
    • variable = changing, variable criteria; average; mean of responses 
    • interval = specific amount of time elapses before a single correct response produces reinforcement 
    • Ex. VI 12: reinforcement is delivered after the first correct response that occurs after an AVERAGE of 12 minutes. 
  • Pattern of responding
    • constant, stable rate of response
    • few hesitations between responses--no post reinforcement pause 
  • Rate of responding produced: 
    • low to moderate rate of response 
    • the larger the average interval, the lower the overall rate of responding 


Variable Interval Graph 

VIP - Very Important Pop Quiz

steady responding because you never know when that pop quiz will be 

A image thumb

Fixed Ratio vs. Fixed Interval 

  • both produce post reinforcement pauses 
  • variable schedules DO NOT have these pauses 


Thinning Intermittent Reinforcement

(Schedule Thinning) 

  • gradutally increasing the response ratio or the duration of the time interval 
  • Ex. thinning from CRF to an FR2 or VR3
  • increasing numbers = thinning schedule 

A image thumb

Ratio Strain 

  • a result of abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from desner to thinner reinforcement schedules 
  • common behavioral charcteristics are avoidance, aggression, etc. 
  • Ex. after abrupty moving from an FR1 to an FR20, the client displays ratio strain in the form of non compliance 
  • Schedules must be thinned slowly to reduce ratio strain 


Limited Hold

Limited Hold = Limited Time

  • a restriction placed on an interval schedule requiring that to be eligible for reinforcement, the primed response (the first response following termination of the required interval) must occur within a specified span of time following that interval 
  • an LH can be imposed on any type of schedule 
  • LH is used to speed up the response rate of the client 
  • Ex. FR5 with LH 2 minutes: the person must complete the five tasks correctly within two munutes 


3 Variations of Basic Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement 

HDL- heavy duty love

  • Schedules of Differential Reinforcement of Rates of Responding 
    • use when the challenging behavior has to do with rates of response (not enough or too much)
    • it is a variation of RATIO schedules--reinforcement is contingent upon behaviors occurring at higher or lower rates that a specified criterion 
    • 3 Variations:
      • DRH - High Rates
      • DRD - Diminishing Rates
      • DRL - Low 


Differential Reinforcement of High Rates of Responding


  • A schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for emitting behaviors that are at or above a preestablished rate 
  • DRH helps to increase behavior that the individual displays too infrequently 
  • Ex. Child attends school 2 times per week, so you use a DRH to reinforce him when he attends school 4 times per week 


Differential Reinforcement of Diminishing Rates of Responding


  • A schedule that provides reinforcement when the number of responses in a specificed time period is less than, or equal to, a prescribed limit 
  • DRD helps to decrease behavior that the individual displays too frequently, but not eliminate it entirely 
  • Ex. Child eats too fast. Implement a DRD so that she can earn reinforcement after taking only 10 bites of food in 5 minutes
  • Exam Hint: always described in rate/frequency form 


Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior 


(Spaced Responding DRL)

  • a schedule that provides reinforcement only if the behavior occurs follwing a specific period of time during which it DID NOT OCCUR OR SINCE THE LAST TIME IT OCCURED
  • An interresponse time (IRT) identifies the duration of time that occurs between two responses 
  • IRT and Rate of Response are functionally related:
    • the longer the IRT, the lower the overall rate of responding 
    • the shorter the IRT, the higher the overall rate of responding 
    • Thus, by increasing IRT, you are lowering the rate of responding 
  • DRL helps to decrease behavior but not to elminiate it entirely 
  • Ex. Child eats too fast. Implement a DRL so that she can only earn reinforcement if she pauses 10 seconds between bites 
  • Exam Hint: if it uses IRT, it's a DRL. (if it's rate, its DRD) 


Progressive Schedules of Reinforcement

  • a variation on basic INT schedules of reinforcement 
  • systematically thins each sucessive reinforcement opportunity independent of the participant's behavior
  • In assessment: progressive schedules are used to identify reinforcers that will maintain treatment effects across increasing schedule requirements. 
    • during the session, progressive schedules are thinned to the breaking point when the client stops responding. comparing the breaking points and corresponding number of respones associated with each reinforcer can identify relative reinforcement effects 
  • In treatment: use progressive schedules to systematically increase the requirements for reinforcement
    • may be used to measure the strength, potency, or effectiveness of scheduled reinforcers 
  • There is a direct relationship bewtween the breaking point (largest ratio completed under a progressive schedule) and the potency of the reinforcer 


7 Compound Schedules of Rienforcement 

Combination of:

  • continuous reinforcement (CRF)
  • 4 basic intermittent schedules- FR, VR, FI, VI
  • Differential reinforcement of various rates of responding- DRD, DRL, DRH
  • Extinction (EXT) 

CMCMTAC - C'mon C'mon take a chance

  1. Concurrent (conc) 
  2. Multiple (mult) 
  3. Chained (chain)
  4. Mixed (mix) 
  5. Tandem (tand) 
  6. Alternative (alt)
  7. Conjunctive (conj) 

A image thumb

Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement

  • occurs when
    • (A) two or more contingencies of reinforcement
    • (B) operate independently and simultaneously
    • (C) for two or more behaviors 
  • Matching law is a part of this schedule 
  • Ex. Your client likes to eat alone at lunch, but you want him to eat with his peers. You use a conc FR1 FI 7. He has a choice to make between two behaviors:
    • 1. interacting with others which is on an FR1 schedule in which he can earn 3 hours of video game time 
    • 2. sitting alone which is on an FI 7 schedule in which he can earn 30 minutes of video game time 

A image thumb

Matching Law

(Matching Theory) 

  • a description of a phenomenon accroding to which organisms MATCH their responses accroding to the proportion of payoff during CHOICE situations 
  • Matching law states that when given two concurretnly available response alternatives, individuals will distribute their behvior in the same proportion that reinforcers are distributed among those alternatives 
    • So, given two concurrently avaialbe behaviors, we will choose to engage in the behavior that has the highest rate of reinforcement 
  • Ex. If a behavior is reinforced 60% of the time in one sutation and 40% of the time in another, the behavior tends to occur 60% of the time in the first situation and 40% of the time in the second situation. 

A image thumb

Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement 

  • Mult schedule presents two or more basic schedules of reinforcement in an alternating, usually random sequence for one or more behaviors 
  • the basic schedules within the mult schedule occur successively and independently 
  • An SD is correlated with each basic schedule and is present as long as the schedule is in effect 
  • Ex. mult VR 5 VI 2 schedule: Math with teacher at school on a VR 5 schedule AND tutor at home on a VI 2. The teacher and the tutor are the different SD


Chained Schedules of Reinforcement

  • has two or more basic schedule requirements that occur successively and have an SD correlated with each independent schedule with one or more behaviors 
  • 3 elements 
    • basic schedules occur in a specific order (vs random in mult schedules) 
    • the behavior may be the same for all elements of the chain or different behaviors may be required for different elements in the chain 
    • conditioned reinforcement for the first behaivor in the chain is the presentation of the second element and so on 
  • Ex. chain FR 15 VI 3: getting gas in your car in your car entails 15 steps that requires completion in a specific order and must be completed AFTER 3 minutes to earn reinforcement 


Mixed Schedules of Reinforcement

  • Identifical to multiple schedules, except the mixed schedule has NO SD correlated with the independent schedules 
  • the only difference between the mixed and multiple schedule is the presentation of the SDs
  • Ex. mix FR 10 FI 1: reinforcement sometimes occurs after the completion of 10 responses and sometimes occurs after a 1 minute interval from the preceding reinforcement. Since there is no SD, the individual is not sure what schedule is in effect at any given time 


Tandem Schedule of Reinforcement

  • Similar to the cianed schedule except the tandem schedule does not use an SD 
  • An unsignaled chain
  • Ex. tand FI 1 FR 5: reinforcement occurs after, first, 1 minute goes by AND THEN the person starts to respond FR 5. The person's 5th correct response is when they recieve reinforcement 


Alternative Schedules of Reinforcement

  • provides reinforcement when the requirement of EITHER a ratio OR interval schedule is met regardless of which of the component schedule requirements is met first
  • EITHER/OR schedule 
  • Ex. alt FR 50 FI 5: reinforcement is given whenever either of these two conditions are met
    • 50 correct responses AND/OR
    • the first correct response after an elapse of 5 minutes 


Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement

  • provides reinforcement when the completion of the response requirements for BOTH a ratio and interval schedule have been met
  • the BOTH schedule 
  • Ex. conj FI 2 FR 50: reinforcement is given with BOTH 2 mintues have elapsed AND 50 correct responses have been made 


Adjunctive Behaviors 

(Schedule-Induced Behaviors) 

  • behaviors that are brought about by schedules of reinforcement during times when reinforcement is unlikely to be delivered 
  • TIME-FILLING or INTERIM berhaviors (doodling, smoking, drinking, etc.) 
  • HINT: Adjunct professor is a FILLER or INTERIM professor 


Schedules of Punishment

  • same as the schedules of reinforcement 
  • ETHICS WARNING: you should recommend reinforcement rather than punishment when ever possible and if punishment procedures are necessary, you always include reinforcement procedures for alternative behavior in the program and you should always recommend the least restrictive procedures likely to be effective