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Flashcards in Section 4 Neurons Deck (17):
1

amount of glial cell to neurons

outnumber neurons 10:1

2

main function of glial cells

support and protect neurons

3

additional functions of glial cells

participate in neuronal activity,
provide the stem cell pool within the NS,
Provide immune response to inflammation and injury

4

types of glial cells

1. astrocytes
2. Oligodendrocytes
3. Schwann cells
4. Microglia
5. Polydendrocytes
6. Ependymal cells

5

astrocytes

most common
structure and support
end feet form Blood Brain Barrier
clean out neurotransmitters from synaptic cleft
maintain ionic homeostasis of interstitial fluid in CNS

6

Oligodendrocyes

myelin gating cells in CNS
Provide insulating and protective layer
one oligodendrocyte can myelinated multiple axons

7

gaps in the myelin sheath occurring at regular intervals to allow passage of ions

Nodes of Ranvier

8

schwann cells

myelinating cell in PNS
similar function to oligodendrocytes, but can only myelinated a single axon
Also helps take up excessive neurotransmitters and maintain ion homeostasis

9

Microglia

immune cell in the CNS
derived from monocytes and macrophages
activated through release of inflammatory molecules, cytokines

10

polydendrocytes

serves as stem cell in the brian
can generate glia cells and neurons

11

ependymal cells

epithelial cells that line the ventricles
separate the cerebrospinal fluid from the nervous tissue
some produce CSF via the choroid plexus

12

Types of Neurons

Multipolar
Pseudounipolar
Bipolar

13

Types of Neuronal Synapses

Axodendritic
Axosomatic
Axoaxonal

14

Steps of Action Potential

1. Depolarization/Rising phase (Sodium influx)
2. Depolarization/Falling Phase (Potassium Efflux)
3. Hyperpolarization/Undershoot
Resting Membrane Potential

15

Resting Membrane Potential

-70mV

16

Neuronal Synapses

Presynaptic Cell
Synaptic Cleft
Post Synaptic Cell
Neurotransmitters
Calcium Channels

17

Amino Acid Neurotransmitter

1. Glutamate
2. Glycine
3. GABA (y-aminobutyric acid)
4. D-Serine
5. Aspartate