Flashcards in Section 5 Exam Deck (99):
True or False? A decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance will decrease blood flow through lungs
True or False? A decrease in the arterial to venous pressure gradient will decrease blood flow through the lungs.
True or False? An increase in the blood pressure within the pulmonary after will decrease blood flow through the lungs
True or False? In emphysema, RV is increased because of a decrease in lung compliance.
True or False? In emphysema, RV increases due to flow limitation that causes air trapping.
True or False? In emphysema, FRC increases because of an increase in lung recoil pressure.
True or False? The ability of a person to cough will be decreased if their spinal cord is cut at C7.
True or False? Inspiration will be completely normal for a person whose spinal cord has been cut at C7.
True or False? In a person with pulmonary fibrosis expired ventilation must increase in order to maintian normal alveolar ventilation.
True or False? In a person with pulmonary fibrosis diffusion of oxygen across the alveolar/ capillary membrane decreases.
True or False? In a person with pulmonary fibrosis, FRC decreases because lung recoil pressure decreases.
True or False? In a person with pulmonary embolism alveolar dead space increases.
True or False? in a person with pulmonary embolism the flow/perfusion ratio decreases.
True or False? in a person with pulmonary embolism the paO2 increases.
The PA(O2) is less than the PI(O2) because:
water vapor pressure increases during inspiration, oxygen is constantly diffusing into the pulmonary capillaries, the PA(CO2) is greater than the PI(CO2)
Pa(O2) will be less than normal if:
the DL(CO) decreases, alveolar dead space increases, or shunt increases
True or False? The solubility layer is maintained by the movement of ions and fluids across the apical membrane of ciliated epithelial cells.
True or False? Airways smooth muscle contract when acetylcholine is released from parasympathetic neurons.
True or False? Only sympathetic neurons contract when acetylcholine is released from parasympathetic neurons.
True or False? Gas exchange does not occur in the conducting airways.
True or False? Prolonged cigarette smoking decreases movement of cilia and causes an increase in the number of goblet cells.
The overall flow/ perfusion ratio of the lungs can be altered by:
changes in alveolar dead space, changes in the amount of extrapulmonary shunt, and moving from standing to the lying down position.
True or False? At rest, most of the diffusion occurs within the first one third of the pulmonary capillary.
True or False? During exercise, DL (O2) increases due to recruitment of pulmonary capillaries.
True or False? The DL(O2) can be measured directly by having a person inhale air with different PI(O2)'s.
True or False? The DL(O2) will increase if the PI(O2) increases.
True or False? If the DL(CO) increases than the DL(O2) increases.
True or False? The partial pressure of oxygen in the pulmonary veins is equal to 100 mm Hg in a normal individual.
True or False? The partial pressure of oxygen in the pulmonary veins is less than 200 mm Hg in a person with an extrapulmonary shunt.
True or False? The partial pressure of oxygen in the pulmonary veins is greater than 100 mmHg if PI(O2) increases to 250 mmHg in a normal individual.
Factors that will decrease the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin in the venous blood
decreases in the P(O2), increase in the P(CO2), increase in the hydrogen ion concentration
How is the concentration of HCO3- altered as blood moves through the pulmonary capillaries?
True or False? The atmospheric of dissolved CO2 decreases as blood moves through the pulmonary capillaries.
True or False? The amount of Hb(CO2) increases as blood moves thru the pulmonary capillaries
In a person with pulmonary edema, an increase in the PI(O2) may cause:
a decrease in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, an increases in the Pa(O2), a decreased thickness of the alveolar/ capillary membrane, and an increase in the DL(O2)
Changes that occur during exercise at sea level;
recruitment of pulmonary capillaries, an increase in the surface area of the alveoli, and an increase in the Os driving pressure across the lung
True or False? There is a marked increase in the Ca(O2) during exercise at sea level in the normal individual.
True or False? The Ca(O2) returns to normal after weeks of exposure to high altitudes.
True or False? The concentration of hemoglobin increases after weeks of exposure to high altitudes.
True or False? The oxygen saturation of hemoglobin returns to normal after weeks of exposure so high altitudes.
True or False? Erythropoetin increases due to a decrease in the PA(CO2).
True or False? Erythropoetin increases the number of red blood cells.
True or False? Erythropoetin increases the amount of dissolved oxygen.
Carbon dioxide poisoning:
forces oxygen of hemoglobin, requires a large decrease in P(O2) (80 mm Hg) to dissociate just one molecule of O2 from hemoglobin, can be treated in a hyperbaric chamber.
H+ dissociates from hemoglobin as blood passes through pulmonary capillaries, most of the HCO3- is formed in the red blood cells, blood pH decreases as blood moves through the systemic capillaries, CO2 dissolved in the blood is greater than the dissolved O2
True or False?In a person with emphysema, airway resistance is greater during inspiration than during expiration.
True or False? If total lung capacity increases and vital capacity decreases then RV must increase.
True or False? At residual volume the recoil force of the chest wall is greater than the recoil force of the lung.
True or False? An opening between the right and left atria causes an intrapulmonary shunt.
True or False? The FEV1/FVC ratio is always less than normal in a person with pulmonary fibrosis.
True or False? Sensory receptors in the lung and chest wall regulate the tidal volume and frequency of breathing to minimize the work of breathing for any given work load.
True or False? In a person with emphysema, both a decreases in the number of pulmonary capillaries and blockage of small airways increases pulmonary vascular resistance.
True or False? Prolonged exposure to a decrease in PI(O2) at altitude will cause the content of oxygen in the blood to increases primarily due to an increase in the amount of dissolved oxygen.
True or False? Both shunt and alveolar dead space can occur in the lung at the same time and cause a decrease in the Pa(O2)
True or False? During an inspiration, most of the air will enter the bottom of the lung because it has more recoil pressure than the top of the lung.
True or False? The driving pressure of oxygen across the end of the pulmonary capillary is 60 mmHg.
True or False? In a person with anemia who has half the amount of normal hemoglobin, the saturation of hemoglobin in the arterial blood will be half of normal
True or False? The driving pressure for CO2 across the lungs is about 10% of that for O2 at the end of pulmonary capillary because CO2 is more soluble than O2 in the alveolar/ capillary membrane.
True or False? When a person returns to sea level after living at high altitude for 2 months, the Ca(O2) will be less than normal.
True or False? The flat portion of the oxygen dissociation curve allows a person to functions reasonably well at altitudes up to 10,000 ft.
Factors that will cause an increases in residual volume:
increases in minimum volume of the lung, decrease in chest wall compliance, increases in the chest wall resting volume
In which direction does the equals pressure point movements if airway resistance increases?
toward the alveoli
What wil shif thee oxyhemoglobin curve to the left?
carbon monoxide poisoning
How are oxygen pressure and oxygen concentration affected in an anemic patient?
oxygen pressure is normal and oxygen concentration is reduced
Does doexygenated or oxygenated hemoglobin have more amine groups availalble to bind with CO2?
Does doexygenated or oxygenated hemoglobin have a higher affinity for H+?
If the breathing frequency of a patient on a ventilator is increased without a change in tidal volume how will PA(Co2) and total ventilation be affected?
PA(Co2) decreases, total ventilation increases
True or False? Increasing Fi(O2) in lobar pneumonia will have little effect.
Where is ventilation highest in the lungs of an individual in the upright position?
Where in the lungs is alveolar P(Co2) highest in the lungs of an individual in the upright position?
highest at the base
Where in the lungs is perfusion highest in the lungs of an individual in the upright position?
base of the lungs
What happens in the early stages of acidosis?
peripheral chemoreceptors are stimulated, PA(CO2) is less than normal, arterial pH is less than normal, and central chemoreceptor extracellular fluid pH is more than normal.
Factors that will increase perfusion through the lungs:
decreases in pulmonary vascular resistance, increases in the arterial to venous pressure gradient, increases in cardiac output
What increases in a person with emphysema?
Residual volume increases because of an increase in lung compliance AND Residual volume increases due to flow limitations that cause air trapping
Neurotransmitter used by the parasympathetic nervous system:
Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system causes:
blood vessel dilation
Result of the spinal cord being cut at T7:
ability to cough is decreased
How is expired ventilation changed in a parson with pulmonary fibrosis?
increases in order to maintain normal alveolar ventilation
True or False? Diffusion of oxygen across the alveolar/ capillary membrane increases in a person with pulmonary fibrosis.
Pulmonary fibrosis results in (decreased/ increased) compliance.
Is the ventilation/ perfusion ratio increased or decreased in a person with a pulmonary embolism/
Why situation eh PA(O2) less than the PI(O2)?
because water vapor pressure increases during inspiration and because oxygen is constantly diffusing into the pulmonary capillaries
PaO2 will be less than normal if:
alveolar dead space increases
What are the effects of acetylcholine on the conducting airways?
causes smooth muscle contraction (released from parasympathetic neurons)
How to increase th overall VA/Q ratio:
decrease alveolar dead space, increase the amount of extrapulmonary shunt, or movements from he long down to standing position
What is DL(O2)?
diffusing capacity of the lung for oxygen
True or False? DL(O2) will decrease if the PI(O2) increases.
F. increases if it increases
True or False? If a person has a lung removed their DLO2 will decrease.
Why does DLO2 increase during exercise?
due to recruitment of pulmonary capillaries
Partial pressure of O2 in the systemic veins:
40 mm Hg
Is partial pressure of O2 in the systemic veins of a person during exercise higher or lower than 40 mm Hg/
Is partial pressure of O2 in the systemic veins of a person with cyanide poisoning higher or lower than 40 mm Hg?
Factors that increases the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin in arterial blood:
increase in the PO2, decreases in the PCO2, decreases in the hydrogen ion concentration, decrease in temperature
True or False? As blood moves through the systemic capillaries the amounts of both dissolved CO2 and HbCO2 increase.
What can an increase in the PI(O2) in a a person with emphysema cause?
decreases in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, increase in the PaO2, increase in the DL(O2), and a decrease in the thickness of the alveolar/ capillary membrane
Does blood pH increase or decrease as it moves through the systemic capillaries?
What % of transported oxygen is dissolved in plasma/
The pressure of the chest wall is equal and opposite the pressure of the lungs at what point in a normal respiratory breath?
at FRC and at the end of expiration