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Flashcards in Section 8: Evolution Deck (108):
1

This is the term describing changes in populations, species or groups;

it can also be thought of as changes in ______ frequencies in populations over time

Evolution

Allele

2

This type of evolution is changes in allele frequencies that occur over time within a population (due to mutation, selection, gene flow & drift)

Microevolution

3

This type of evolution is patterns of changes in groups of related species over broad periods of geologic time. Patterns determine
phylogeny

Macroevolution

4

This term means the evolutionary relationships among species and groups of species

Phylogeny

5

This is part of the Lamarck theory of evolution, states that body parts can develop with increased and unused parts are weakened (correct in athletes)

Use and disuse

6

This part of Lamarck theory states that body features acquired during lifetime can be passed down to offsprings
(incorrect).

Inheritance of acquired characteristics

7

This part of Lamarck' theory of evolution states that organisms produced offspring with changes, transforming each later generation slightly
more complex (no extinction or splits into more species) => incorrect.

Natural Transformation of species

8

This is part of Lamarck's Theory of Evolution, means survival of the fittest (Darwinism) => now called neo-Darwinism (synthetic theory of evolution).

Natural Selection

9

This type of study provides evidence for evolution, fossils reveal prehistoric existence of extinct species; often found in sediment layers (deepest fossilsrepresent oldest specimens). (large, rapid changes produce new species)(fos types: actual remains, petrification, imprints, molds, casts)

Paleontology

10

This is geography that describes the distribution of species; unrelated in different regions of the world look alike when found in a similar environment

This is the term for when supercontinent Pangea slowly broke apart into 7 continents

Biogeography

Continental Drift

11

This field of study shows similar stages of development among related species, and is a good way to establish phylogeny.

What are some examples?

The similar stages of development are called

Embryology

Gill slits and tails

Ontogeny

"ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"

12

This field of study describes two kinds of structures that contribute to identification of an evolutionary relationship

What are the two structure types?

Comparative anatomy

Homologous Structures
Analagous Structure

13

These are body parts that resemble one another in different species from a common ancestor

Homologous Structure

14

These are body parts that resemble one another in different species because they evolved independently as adaptation to their environments.

Analogous Structures

15

This field of study examines nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DNA and proteins from different species

More than ____% of nucleotide sequences in human and chimpanzees are identical

AAs in _______ are often compared

Molecular Biology

98%

cytochrome c

16

This field of study looks for common biochemical pathways to determine organisms with a common ancestor

Comparative Biology

17

This is the process that is responsible for produces adaptations that increase an individual's fitness

Natural Selection

18

These are superior inherited traits

This is the ability to survive and have offspring

Adaptations

Fitness

19

A principle of natural selection. If all offspring produce and survive, the population possesses an enormous ________ potential

Reproductive

20

A principle of natural selection. Population size generally is

Stable, populations fluctuate around a constant size

21

A principle of natural selection. Resources do not increase as population grows larger

Resources are limited

22

A principle of natural selection. a growing group will exceed available resources and they will ________

Compete (individuals compete for survival)

23

A principle of natural selection, exemplified by skin color

There is variation among individuals in a population

24

A principle of natural selection, ______ is heritable because DNA is passed down

Variation

25

A principle of natural selection. Only the most ____ individuals survive

Fit

26

A principle of natural selection, the best adapted individuals leave the best adapted offspring who leave the most offspring

Evolution occurs as favorable traits accumulate in the population

27

This type of selection is a bell curve, it favors the intermediate

Stabilizing Selection

28

This type of selection favors traits that are at one extreme of a range of traits. Traits at opposite extremes are selected against.

After many generations, changes in ______ can occur (like insecticide resistance)

Directional Selection

Allele frequencies

29

This is the selection of dark colored varieties in various species of moth as a result of industrial pollution

What type of selection is it?

Industrial Melanism

Directional Selection

30

This type of selection occurs when environment favors extreme or unusual traits while selecting against common traits.
Short and tall are favored while average is selected against

Disruptive Selection

31

This type of selection is caused by the differential mating of males or females in a population.

Female choose superior males--->increases fitness of offspring. They invest greater energy so they maximize ______

Males increase fitness of offspring by maximizing ____

Sexual selection

Quality

Quantity

32

In sexual selection, this leads to fights as mating opportunities are awarded to the strongest males, favoring traits lik musculature, horns, large stature, etc.

Male competition

33

In sexual selection, this leads to traits/behaviors in males that are favorable to females, favorable traits like colorful plumage or elaborate mating behavior

Female Choice.

34

Male competition and female choice (sexual selection) often lead to differences in the appearances of males and females, also known as

What form of selection does it become under these circumstances?

Sexual Dimorphism

Disruptive selection

35

This is form of directional selection carried out by humans when they breed favorable traits (not natural
selection).

Artificial Selection

36

This source of mutation introduces a new allele into a sequence

Mutation

37

This source of mutation results in genetic recombination (crossing over, independent, random joining of gametes)

Sexual Reproductions

38

This source of genetic variation is the presence of two copies of each chromosome

In heterozygous conditions, the ___ allele is stored for later generations, allowing more variation in the gene pool

Diploidy

recessive

39

This source of genetic variation is mating with unrelated partners leading to the mixing of different alleles and new combinations

Outbreeding

40

This source of genetic variation is the maintenance of different phenotypes in population (one is usually best and increased in allele frequency).

Balanced polymorphism

41

In this type of balanced polymorphism, the heterozygous condition bears greater advantage than either homozygous conditions.

What disease is an example of this?

Heterozygote advantage

Sickle Cell (14% in Africa because it has resistance against malaria)

42

In this type of balanced polymorphism, there is a uperior quality of offspring resulting from crosses between two different inbred strains
of plants

Hybrid vigor (heterosis)

43

Hybrid superior quality results from reduction of loci with deletion of recessive homozygous conditions and
increase in heterozygous advantage in this type of balanced polymorphism

Hydrid Vigor (heterosis)

44

In this type of balanced polymorphism, the least common phenotypes have a selective advantage. Common phenotypes are selected against. Rare will increase in frequency and will be selected against and repeat

Frequency Dependent Selection (minority advantage)

QUESTION: Aren't the peppered moths an example of this?

45

In this type of balancing polymorphism, there are predators, and a rare phenotype enables the prey to escape. Eventually the ones able to escape become more common. But then the predators adjust and that trait becomes less common in a cycle

Frequency Dependent Selection

46

This is a variation without selective value

Neutral Variation

47

This is variation of a species dependent on climate or geographic conditions.

A graded variation of a phenotype is called a

Variation from north/south environments is a

Geographic Variation

Cline

north/south cline

48

This cause of change in allele frequencies is an increase or decrease of allele frequencies due to the environment

Natural Selection

49

This is the introduction/removal of alleles from the population when individuals leave (emigration) or enter a population

Gene Flow

50

This is the random increase/decrease of alleles by chance

Does this have a larger effect in large populations or small populations?

Genetic Drift

Larger Effect in small populations

51

This is a type of genetic drift, occurs when allele frequencies in a group of migrating individuals are (by chance) not the same as that of their population origin

Founder Effect

52

This is a type of genetic drift, occurs when a population undergoes a dramatic decrease in size due to a natural catastrophe or something else, leaves the population vulnerable to genetic drift

Bottleneck

53

This is a cause of changes in allele frequencies, occurs when individuals choose mates based upon their particular traits

Nonrandom Mating

54

This is a type of nonrandom mating where individuals mate with relatives

This is a type of nonrandom mating where females choose males based upon superior traits

Inbreeding

Sexual Selection

55

Lastly, and obviously, this is a source of change in allele frequencies

Mutation

56

This is the concept of genetic equilibrium

When allele frequencies remain constant from generation to generation, there is no evolution. For this to occur, it requires 5 things

No mutation
Neutral traits (no natural selection)
Isolated population (no gene flow)
Large population (no genetic drift)
Random Mating

57

What are the allele frequences for each allele in hardy weinburg equilibrium?

What, then, is the frequency of each homozygous type of genotype?

What about the heterozygous type?

All alleles sum to...

So the net equation is....

p,q

p^2, q^2

2pq (pq + pq)

1

p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1

must be true for HW!

58

This is the formation of new species

Speciation

59

This is a group of individuals capable of interbreeding

Species

60

This type of speciation comes from a population divided by a geographic barrier, preventing interbreed between the two resulting populations

If sufficiently diverged, the two populations won't be able to interbreed (due to natural selection, mutation, genetic drift) when the barrier is removed, forming a new

Allopatric Speciation

Species

61

This is the formation of a new species without the presence of a geographic barrier

Sympatric Speciation

62

This is natural selection due to polymorphism.

Ex: there are different colors in an insect species, one color can camoflouge to different subtrate, other can't and will be eaten. Only insects with same color can mate.

Balanced Polymorphism

63

This is the possession of more than normal two sets of chromosomes

Polyploidy

64

These occurs when two different forms of a species (closely related species) mate and produce along a geographic boundary

The geographic boundary is called

Is there any benefit to this?

Hybridization

Hybrid Zone

More genetic variations --> hybrid can live beyod range of parents

65

This is the adaptive evolution of many species from a single ancestor; occurs when ancestral species is introduced to an area where diverse geographic/ecological conditions are available for colonization

Adaptive radiation

66

Maintaining reproductive Isolation prevents ______

Prezygotic isolating mechanisms prevent _______

gene flow

fertilization

67

This is a type of isolation mechanismms where the species do not encounter one another

Pre or post zygotic?

Habitat isolation

Prezygotic

68

This type of isolating mechanism occurs when species mater/flower during different seasons/time, preventing mating between them

Pre or post?

Temporal isolation

Pre

69

This isolating mechanism occurs when one species does not perform the correct courtship rituals

Pre or post?

Behavioral Isolation

pre

70

This type of isolation mechanism occurs when male/female genitalia are not compatible

Pre or post?

Mechanical Isolation

Pre

71

This type of isolation mechanism occurs when male gametes do not survive in the environment of female gametes (gametes don't recognize one another)

Pre or post?

Gametic Isolation

Pre

72

This type of isolation mechanism occurs when a zygote fails to develop properly and dies before reaching reproductive maturity

Pre or post?

Hybrid Inviability

Post

73

This type of isolation mechanism occurs when hybrids become functional adults but cannot reproduce

Pre or post?

Hybrid Sterility

Post

74

This isolation mechanism has hybrids producing offspring that have reduced viability/fertility (hybrid's children can't reproduce)

Pre or post?

Hybrid Breakdown

Post

75

In this pattern of evolution, two or more species that originate from a common ancestor become increasingly different over time

Divergent Evolution

76

In this pattern of evolution, two unrelated species share similar traits by environment (analogous traits).

Convergent Evolution

77

In this pattern of evolution, two related species made similar evolutionary changes after their divergence from common ancestor

Parallel Evolution

78

In this pattern of evolution, the evolution of one species in response to new adaptations appear in another species (predator/prey)

Coevolution

79

In macroevlution, this theory of evolution occurs by gradual accumulation of small changes

Is it likely to be valid? Why or why not?

Phyletic Gradualism

Likely invalid, intermediate stages of evolution are missing (no fossils for them), fossils only reveal major changes

80

In macroevolution, this theory states that evolutionary history consists of geologically long periods of stasis (stability) with little to no evolution followed by geologically short periods of rapid evolutions

Is it valid?

Punctuated Equilibrium

Absence of fossils revealing intermediate stages of evolution is considered data that confirms rapid evolutionary events

81

How old is the universe?

12-15 billion yrs

82

How old is our solar system?

4.6 billion yrs

83

How old is earth?

4.5 billion yrs

84

How old are the first fossils?

3.6 billion yrs

85

How old are the first photosynthetic bacteria?

2.3 billion yrs

86

How old are the first eukaryotes?

1.5 billion yrs

87

How did earth and its atmosphere form?

What molecule was there not much of in Earth's beginning that is important now?

Volcanoes! (CH4, NH3, CO, CO2, H2, N2, H2O, S, HCN)

little to no O2

88

Describe the primordial seas formation

This led to...

Earth cooled--> gases condensed ---> sea form with water and animals

the formation of complex molecules

89

In the formation of complex molecules, the formation of an organic soup from inorganic, energy from UV, ______, heat and radiation formed what molecules?

LIGHTNING

Formed acetic acid, formaldehyde, amino acids

90

Oparin and Haldane's theory is the organic soup thoery, it states that if there were ______ (very reactive), no organic molecules would have formed

O2

91

Oparin and Haldanes hypothesis was that the origin Earth environment was ____ (providing chemical requirements to produce complex molecules from simply building blocks)

Reducing

Oxidizing environment would break complex molecules apart

92

Stanley Miller tested the oparin and haldane theory of the organic soup, what did they find?

What didn't they find?

Several organic molecules, AAs, starting materials, but no nucleic acids!

93

Monomers form polymers through what reactions?

Dehydration/condensation

94

These are abiotically produced polypeptides. AA dehydration on hot, dry substrates confirms this.

Proteinoids

95

Organic molecules were concentrated into these precursors of cells, they were like cells as in they were metabolically active but unable to reproduce

Protobionts

96

These are spontaneously formed lipid or protein bilayer bubbles that are experimentally produced protobionts that have some selective permeable qualities

Microsphere/liposomes and coacervates

97

In the early Earth, these obtained minerals by consuming other organic substances (pathogenic bacteria)

Primitive heterotrophic Prokaryotes

98

In the formation of primitive autotrophic prokaryotes, a mutation caused heterotrophs to gain the ability to produce its own food, and this created....

Cyanobacteria!

99

What ended the abiotic chemical evolution?

Photosynthetic activity of autotrophs created the ozone layer, blocking energy for abiotic synthesis of organic materials, leading to the termination of primitive cells.

(UV light +oxygen=>ozone layer)

100

Eukaryoteic cells originated mutually among _______

What theory is this?

What evidence is there?

Prokaryotes

Endosymbiotic theory

Thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts resemble photosynthetic membranes of cyanobacteria

Mitochondria and chloroplasts have own DNA

Mit and chlorplast ribsomes resemble bacteria

Mitochondria and chloroplasts reproduce independently via process similar to binary fission

They have two membranes

101

The modern atmosphere is rougly ____% nitrogen, _____% oxygen, and ____% argon

78% nitrogen

21% oxygen

1% argon

102

These are structure that appear to be useless but had ancestral function; like appendices and tails in humans, horses (splints), pythons that have legs reduced to bones

Vestigial Structures

103

This occurs between two or more harmful species that are not closely related and share one or more common predators, they come to mimic each other's warning signals

Mullerian Mimicry

104

This is deceptive mimicry; a species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a common predator

Batesian Mimicry

105

This is a category of evolution where one species replaces another, straight path evolution

Aragenesis/phyletic evolution

106

This is a category of evolution where a new species branches out from a parent species

Cladogenesis/branching evolution

107

This is the term for a small local population, like all of the beavers along a specific portion of a river

Deme

108

This is the relationship between 2 species. Can be mutalism commensalism, parasitism, etc

Symbiosis