Flashcards in Section 8: Evolution Deck (108):
This is the term describing changes in populations, species or groups;
it can also be thought of as changes in ______ frequencies in populations over time
This type of evolution is changes in allele frequencies that occur over time within a population (due to mutation, selection, gene flow & drift)
This type of evolution is patterns of changes in groups of related species over broad periods of geologic time. Patterns determine
This term means the evolutionary relationships among species and groups of species
This is part of the Lamarck theory of evolution, states that body parts can develop with increased and unused parts are weakened (correct in athletes)
Use and disuse
This part of Lamarck theory states that body features acquired during lifetime can be passed down to offsprings
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
This part of Lamarck' theory of evolution states that organisms produced offspring with changes, transforming each later generation slightly
more complex (no extinction or splits into more species) => incorrect.
Natural Transformation of species
This is part of Lamarck's Theory of Evolution, means survival of the fittest (Darwinism) => now called neo-Darwinism (synthetic theory of evolution).
This type of study provides evidence for evolution, fossils reveal prehistoric existence of extinct species; often found in sediment layers (deepest fossilsrepresent oldest specimens). (large, rapid changes produce new species)(fos types: actual remains, petrification, imprints, molds, casts)
This is geography that describes the distribution of species; unrelated in different regions of the world look alike when found in a similar environment
This is the term for when supercontinent Pangea slowly broke apart into 7 continents
This field of study shows similar stages of development among related species, and is a good way to establish phylogeny.
What are some examples?
The similar stages of development are called
Gill slits and tails
"ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"
This field of study describes two kinds of structures that contribute to identification of an evolutionary relationship
What are the two structure types?
These are body parts that resemble one another in different species from a common ancestor
These are body parts that resemble one another in different species because they evolved independently as adaptation to their environments.
This field of study examines nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DNA and proteins from different species
More than ____% of nucleotide sequences in human and chimpanzees are identical
AAs in _______ are often compared
This field of study looks for common biochemical pathways to determine organisms with a common ancestor
This is the process that is responsible for produces adaptations that increase an individual's fitness
These are superior inherited traits
This is the ability to survive and have offspring
A principle of natural selection. If all offspring produce and survive, the population possesses an enormous ________ potential
A principle of natural selection. Population size generally is
Stable, populations fluctuate around a constant size
A principle of natural selection. Resources do not increase as population grows larger
Resources are limited
A principle of natural selection. a growing group will exceed available resources and they will ________
Compete (individuals compete for survival)
A principle of natural selection, exemplified by skin color
There is variation among individuals in a population
A principle of natural selection, ______ is heritable because DNA is passed down
A principle of natural selection. Only the most ____ individuals survive
A principle of natural selection, the best adapted individuals leave the best adapted offspring who leave the most offspring
Evolution occurs as favorable traits accumulate in the population
This type of selection is a bell curve, it favors the intermediate
This type of selection favors traits that are at one extreme of a range of traits. Traits at opposite extremes are selected against.
After many generations, changes in ______ can occur (like insecticide resistance)
This is the selection of dark colored varieties in various species of moth as a result of industrial pollution
What type of selection is it?
This type of selection occurs when environment favors extreme or unusual traits while selecting against common traits.
Short and tall are favored while average is selected against
This type of selection is caused by the differential mating of males or females in a population.
Female choose superior males--->increases fitness of offspring. They invest greater energy so they maximize ______
Males increase fitness of offspring by maximizing ____
In sexual selection, this leads to fights as mating opportunities are awarded to the strongest males, favoring traits lik musculature, horns, large stature, etc.
In sexual selection, this leads to traits/behaviors in males that are favorable to females, favorable traits like colorful plumage or elaborate mating behavior
Male competition and female choice (sexual selection) often lead to differences in the appearances of males and females, also known as
What form of selection does it become under these circumstances?
This is form of directional selection carried out by humans when they breed favorable traits (not natural
This source of mutation introduces a new allele into a sequence
This source of mutation results in genetic recombination (crossing over, independent, random joining of gametes)
This source of genetic variation is the presence of two copies of each chromosome
In heterozygous conditions, the ___ allele is stored for later generations, allowing more variation in the gene pool
This source of genetic variation is mating with unrelated partners leading to the mixing of different alleles and new combinations
This source of genetic variation is the maintenance of different phenotypes in population (one is usually best and increased in allele frequency).
In this type of balanced polymorphism, the heterozygous condition bears greater advantage than either homozygous conditions.
What disease is an example of this?
Sickle Cell (14% in Africa because it has resistance against malaria)
In this type of balanced polymorphism, there is a uperior quality of offspring resulting from crosses between two different inbred strains
Hybrid vigor (heterosis)
Hybrid superior quality results from reduction of loci with deletion of recessive homozygous conditions and
increase in heterozygous advantage in this type of balanced polymorphism
Hydrid Vigor (heterosis)
In this type of balanced polymorphism, the least common phenotypes have a selective advantage. Common phenotypes are selected against. Rare will increase in frequency and will be selected against and repeat
Frequency Dependent Selection (minority advantage)
QUESTION: Aren't the peppered moths an example of this?
In this type of balancing polymorphism, there are predators, and a rare phenotype enables the prey to escape. Eventually the ones able to escape become more common. But then the predators adjust and that trait becomes less common in a cycle
Frequency Dependent Selection
This is a variation without selective value
This is variation of a species dependent on climate or geographic conditions.
A graded variation of a phenotype is called a
Variation from north/south environments is a
This cause of change in allele frequencies is an increase or decrease of allele frequencies due to the environment
This is the introduction/removal of alleles from the population when individuals leave (emigration) or enter a population
This is the random increase/decrease of alleles by chance
Does this have a larger effect in large populations or small populations?
Larger Effect in small populations
This is a type of genetic drift, occurs when allele frequencies in a group of migrating individuals are (by chance) not the same as that of their population origin
This is a type of genetic drift, occurs when a population undergoes a dramatic decrease in size due to a natural catastrophe or something else, leaves the population vulnerable to genetic drift
This is a cause of changes in allele frequencies, occurs when individuals choose mates based upon their particular traits
This is a type of nonrandom mating where individuals mate with relatives
This is a type of nonrandom mating where females choose males based upon superior traits
Lastly, and obviously, this is a source of change in allele frequencies
This is the concept of genetic equilibrium
When allele frequencies remain constant from generation to generation, there is no evolution. For this to occur, it requires 5 things
Neutral traits (no natural selection)
Isolated population (no gene flow)
Large population (no genetic drift)
What are the allele frequences for each allele in hardy weinburg equilibrium?
What, then, is the frequency of each homozygous type of genotype?
What about the heterozygous type?
All alleles sum to...
So the net equation is....
2pq (pq + pq)
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
must be true for HW!
This is the formation of new species
This is a group of individuals capable of interbreeding
This type of speciation comes from a population divided by a geographic barrier, preventing interbreed between the two resulting populations
If sufficiently diverged, the two populations won't be able to interbreed (due to natural selection, mutation, genetic drift) when the barrier is removed, forming a new
This is the formation of a new species without the presence of a geographic barrier
This is natural selection due to polymorphism.
Ex: there are different colors in an insect species, one color can camoflouge to different subtrate, other can't and will be eaten. Only insects with same color can mate.
This is the possession of more than normal two sets of chromosomes
These occurs when two different forms of a species (closely related species) mate and produce along a geographic boundary
The geographic boundary is called
Is there any benefit to this?
More genetic variations --> hybrid can live beyod range of parents
This is the adaptive evolution of many species from a single ancestor; occurs when ancestral species is introduced to an area where diverse geographic/ecological conditions are available for colonization
Maintaining reproductive Isolation prevents ______
Prezygotic isolating mechanisms prevent _______
This is a type of isolation mechanismms where the species do not encounter one another
Pre or post zygotic?
This type of isolating mechanism occurs when species mater/flower during different seasons/time, preventing mating between them
Pre or post?
This isolating mechanism occurs when one species does not perform the correct courtship rituals
Pre or post?
This type of isolation mechanism occurs when male/female genitalia are not compatible
Pre or post?
This type of isolation mechanism occurs when male gametes do not survive in the environment of female gametes (gametes don't recognize one another)
Pre or post?
This type of isolation mechanism occurs when a zygote fails to develop properly and dies before reaching reproductive maturity
Pre or post?
This type of isolation mechanism occurs when hybrids become functional adults but cannot reproduce
Pre or post?
This isolation mechanism has hybrids producing offspring that have reduced viability/fertility (hybrid's children can't reproduce)
Pre or post?
In this pattern of evolution, two or more species that originate from a common ancestor become increasingly different over time
In this pattern of evolution, two unrelated species share similar traits by environment (analogous traits).
In this pattern of evolution, two related species made similar evolutionary changes after their divergence from common ancestor
In this pattern of evolution, the evolution of one species in response to new adaptations appear in another species (predator/prey)
In macroevlution, this theory of evolution occurs by gradual accumulation of small changes
Is it likely to be valid? Why or why not?
Likely invalid, intermediate stages of evolution are missing (no fossils for them), fossils only reveal major changes
In macroevolution, this theory states that evolutionary history consists of geologically long periods of stasis (stability) with little to no evolution followed by geologically short periods of rapid evolutions
Is it valid?
Absence of fossils revealing intermediate stages of evolution is considered data that confirms rapid evolutionary events
How old is the universe?
12-15 billion yrs
How old is our solar system?
4.6 billion yrs
How old is earth?
4.5 billion yrs
How old are the first fossils?
3.6 billion yrs
How old are the first photosynthetic bacteria?
2.3 billion yrs
How old are the first eukaryotes?
1.5 billion yrs
How did earth and its atmosphere form?
What molecule was there not much of in Earth's beginning that is important now?
Volcanoes! (CH4, NH3, CO, CO2, H2, N2, H2O, S, HCN)
little to no O2
Describe the primordial seas formation
This led to...
Earth cooled--> gases condensed ---> sea form with water and animals
the formation of complex molecules
In the formation of complex molecules, the formation of an organic soup from inorganic, energy from UV, ______, heat and radiation formed what molecules?
Formed acetic acid, formaldehyde, amino acids
Oparin and Haldane's theory is the organic soup thoery, it states that if there were ______ (very reactive), no organic molecules would have formed
Oparin and Haldanes hypothesis was that the origin Earth environment was ____ (providing chemical requirements to produce complex molecules from simply building blocks)
Oxidizing environment would break complex molecules apart
Stanley Miller tested the oparin and haldane theory of the organic soup, what did they find?
What didn't they find?
Several organic molecules, AAs, starting materials, but no nucleic acids!
Monomers form polymers through what reactions?
These are abiotically produced polypeptides. AA dehydration on hot, dry substrates confirms this.
Organic molecules were concentrated into these precursors of cells, they were like cells as in they were metabolically active but unable to reproduce
These are spontaneously formed lipid or protein bilayer bubbles that are experimentally produced protobionts that have some selective permeable qualities
Microsphere/liposomes and coacervates
In the early Earth, these obtained minerals by consuming other organic substances (pathogenic bacteria)
Primitive heterotrophic Prokaryotes
In the formation of primitive autotrophic prokaryotes, a mutation caused heterotrophs to gain the ability to produce its own food, and this created....
What ended the abiotic chemical evolution?
Photosynthetic activity of autotrophs created the ozone layer, blocking energy for abiotic synthesis of organic materials, leading to the termination of primitive cells.
(UV light +oxygen=>ozone layer)
Eukaryoteic cells originated mutually among _______
What theory is this?
What evidence is there?
Thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts resemble photosynthetic membranes of cyanobacteria
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have own DNA
Mit and chlorplast ribsomes resemble bacteria
Mitochondria and chloroplasts reproduce independently via process similar to binary fission
They have two membranes
The modern atmosphere is rougly ____% nitrogen, _____% oxygen, and ____% argon
These are structure that appear to be useless but had ancestral function; like appendices and tails in humans, horses (splints), pythons that have legs reduced to bones
This occurs between two or more harmful species that are not closely related and share one or more common predators, they come to mimic each other's warning signals
This is deceptive mimicry; a species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a common predator
This is a category of evolution where one species replaces another, straight path evolution
This is a category of evolution where a new species branches out from a parent species
This is the term for a small local population, like all of the beavers along a specific portion of a river