Flashcards in Section III - Appendix A Deck (55):
The modern method of constructing high-rise buildings is commonly called "_______ _____________".
Core construction has less mass than old-style construction and is more?
vulnerable to heat from a fire
The ___________ ________ of a high rise building is the skeleton of the structure that supports not only the dead load of the building itself, but it also supports live loads such as ____________ and ____________ contents.
structural frame / occupants and building
The most common systems in high-rise buildings use either of the following as the basis for forming the building skeleton:
* ______________ ___________ (old style)
* _____________ __________ (new style)
* Reinforced concrete
* Structural steel
The ___________ span the horizontal distance between the columns and support structural beams.
To achieve the fire protection required by building codes for Type 1 (fire-resistive) construction, steel frame members in high-rise buildings are fire proofed by encasing them in __________ or ________ _______ or by spraying them with a ___________ __________.
concrete or sheet rock / protective coating
___________ has the advantage of being the most permanent type of, but it's use is limited due to the effect that it has on the dead weight of a building.
Some older style high-rise buildings were constructed with bearing walls made of ___________. Most of these buildings were constructed of ____________ ____________.
masonry / reinforced concrete
______________ frame structures tend to resist the effects of fire better than _________ frame structures, but they are less resistant to the effects of earthquakes.
Concrete / steel
The exterior walls of an old-style high-rise are part of the ___________ members.
The exterior walls of modern high rise buildings are commonly _______________ and are typically lighter in __________ than those in older buildings.
prefabricated / weight
A complete __________ ________ consist of a panel with finished surfaces and a means for attaching it to the building frame.
The outside finish of a modern high rise building is often referred to as the _______, and usually consists of decorative materials such as _____________, ______________ _________, or light weight ___________ with large window areas.
skin / aluminum / stainless steel / concrete
High rise residential buildings normally have ___________ windows made from regular plate glass.
Windows in high rise office buildings are often _____________.
When a _____________ glass window is broken, it will shatter into very small pieces, providing a degree of safety that is not offered by ________ glass under the same circumstances.
tempered / plate
Roofs on high rise buildings are required to have at least a _____-hour fire resistive rating.
Shaft enclosures in high-rise buildings are required to have a minimum of a _____-hour fire resistive rating.
High rise building stair shafts are often built into the ________ _______.
As a rule, stair shaft systems in high rise buildings are not designed to handle the total occupant load of the building ________________.
Floors in high rise buildings are also required to have a minimum of a _____-hour fire resistive rating.
After the concrete has set, holes are bored in the concrete to allow for the passage of various utility lines or equipment between floors. This procedure is called _______-__________ construction.
Most recent codes require that poke-through openings be sealed with a material that?
reestablishes the two hour fire resistiveness
What are the two general floor layouts in high-rise buildings?
compartmentation and open space
An example of compartmentation floor layout would be a typical high-rise ______________ building.
Examples of the open-space concept are high-rise _________ buildings where floors are virtually wide open.
Much of the electrical equipment in a high rise building is likely to be located in the _____________ of the building.
Who should do a shutdown in electrical vaults?
utility company or the building engineer
______________ are vertical shafts in which elevator cars travel.
Smoke and its toxic products account for more than ______ percent of the fire deaths in the US.
____________ greatly increase the volume and the toxicity of smoke.
What are examples of passive smoke control measures?
Barriers / curtains / gravity venting / smoke-proof towers / smoke removal shafts
Examples of active smoke control systems are?
Stairway-pressurization systems / building, zone, corridor, elevator or atrium smoke control systems
For reasons of economy and efficiency, HVAC systems operate on the concept of ?
recirculating most of the air within the building
In HVAC systems what are smoke activated and control the spread of fire products from the area of origin to other parts of the building?
For many years ______ inch ______ standpipe systems have been used in high rise buildings.
1 1/2 inch wet standpipe
The _____ inch ______ standpipe systems are used in many older buildings and in some cases, in new buildings that do not exceed specific heights.
2 1/2 inch dry standpipe
The _____ inch _____ standpipe systems are required by code in all new high rise buildings over certain heights.
2 1/2 inch wet standpipe
Fire pumps for high-rise buildings are usually multistage ______________ _________.
What are two drawbacks to the orifice plate and other pressure restricting devices?
- These devices have no effect on static pressure
- They do not allow for multiple hoselines because of limited flow that comes through the orifice opening
As a rule, radio frequencies in the _______ band are very ineffective.
Radio frequencies in the _______ band are fairly ineffective in most situations.
Radio frequencies in the _______ ____________ band produce the most consistent results although they are not perfect.
Life safety can be enhanced by timely control of the _________ system.
Failure to control __________ movement within the building can put many lives at great risk.
The behavior of occupants during a high rise fire is largely _________________.
If occupants are going to be evacuated from the building, it is critical that they use stair shafts that are not ?
contaminated with smoke and heat
As long as the air inside the building is hotter than the atmospheric air outside the building, ventilation will occur by having fresh air drawn in through lower building openings and discharged through the top. This is considered the ?
normal stack effect
When the outside air temperature is higher than the inside air temperature at the buildings upper levels, a ____________ stack effect may take place.
________ extension occurs when the fire generates enough heat to break out windows and the fire "rolls out" of the fire floor and up the outside of the building.
A space created between floor assemblies and the curtain wall if not sealed during construction or under heavy fire conditions may allow vertical spread of the fire through this space known as ?
curtain wall extension
What are some features incorporated into high rise design and construction that contribute to vertical fire extension: ?
* stair, elevators shafts
* electrical chase ways
* plumbing, electrical, data poke-throughs
* HVAC supply/return shafts
* mail/trash chutes
* access stairs
A fire that reaches the __________ area around the center core of a high-rise can spread in that _________ area.
plenum / plenum
When fire is predicted to be in the plenum area, responders entering the corridor from a stair shaft should remove the __________ ________ in both directions before advancing.