Flashcards in Section one- Anatomy and Physiology Deck (73):
The top chamber in the heart and the first place that blood enters the heart.
The bottem chamber in the heart
Takes oxygenated blood into the muscles
Take de oxygenated blood into the heart
The place in your neck where you can feel your pulse
The place in your wrist where you can feel your pulse
The place in the side of your head where you can feel your pulse.
Takes air into your lungs
Take air from your bronchi to your alveoli
Take air from the trachea into the bronchioles
Where the air diffuses into the blood
General term for pathways of air
Take de oxygenated blood away from the heart into the lungs
The net movement of particles from high to low concentration
the amount of air you breath in
expiratory reserve volume
the amount of air left in the lungs when you breath all the way out
Describe how the heart pumps blood around the body
Oxygenated blood enters the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. The left atrium contracts, pushing blood through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle. The left ventricle then contracts forcing the blood through the semi lunar valve into the aorta to the muscles.
When the de oxygenated blood returns, it enters through the vena cava into the right atrium. This process then follows the same for the left side until it exits out through the pulmonary artery.
What are the adaptions of the arteries which make it good at its job?
They have thick muscular walls to allow them to carry blood flowing at high pressure away from the heart.
How veins adapted to be good at their job?
They carry blood at low pressure towards the heart so they have thinner walls.
How are capillaries adapted to be good at their job?
Vey thin walls to allow oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients to pass easily through to the muscles and organs.
What is vascular shunting?
When the body redistributes blood around the body to increase the supply of oxygen to your muscles during exercise.
What happens to your blood vessels when you exercise?
-Your arteries widen to stop blood pressure from getting to high
-Blood vessels in the muscles widen(vasodilation)
-Blood vessels in inactive organs narrow to divert blood towards the active muscles (vasodilation)
-Blood is shunted closer to the skin to cool down.
What is the function of the skeleton?
-support and structure
-making blood cells
What is the ulna?
Bottom bone in your forearm
What is the radius?
Top bone in your forearm
What are the tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges?
tarsals: ankle bone
Metatarsals: Used by muscles to move the foot (long)
Phalanges: toes and fingers
( change them to carpals and metacarpals for hands)
What is the tibia?
Front shin bone
Back of the lower leg
Your upper leg
What is the importance of flat bones?
Protect internal organs and allow muscles attachment
What is flexion?
Closing a joint e.g bending your leg
What is extension?
Opening a joint e.g straightening your leg
What is adduction?
Moving a limb to the centre of your body
What is abduction?
Moving a limb away from the centre of your body
What is Rotation?
Clockwise or anti clockwise movement
What is circumduction?
Movement of a limb in a circular motion e.g bowling In cricket
What is Plantar flexion?
Extension at the ankle
What is dorsi flexion
Flexion at the ankle
What is a condyloid joint?
What is a pivot joint?
What is the tibialis anterior?
The muscle at the front of the calf which moves the ankle
What are deltoids?
Muscle at the shoulder
What is an agonist?
The muscle that contracts to produce a movement
What is the antagonist?
The muscle that relaxes during a movement
What are slow twitch muscles best suited for?
Low intensity aerobic work as they can be used for a ling time without fatiguing
What are fast twitch muscles best suited for?
high intensity anaerobic exercise which require greater force for a short amount of time as they fatigue quickly
When does your body use aerobic respiration?
When your body is keeping up with the oxygen demand of the cells
What are the short term affects of exercise
-Increases body temperature
-lactic acid build up
-increased oxygen debt
-Breathing rate and depth increases
-Heart rate increases
-stoke volume increases
-increased cardiac output
Long term effects of exercise
-Muscles increase in size and increased strength
-increased muscular endurance
-`Denser bones-increased strength
-heart gets bigger and stronger
-Increased resting stroke volume and maximum cardiac output
-Larger lung capacity
-Lower blood pressure
-more red blood cells and capillaries in the muscles
What is the function of cartilage?
acts as a cushion between bones to prevent rubbing.
What is the name of the fluid filled bag in a synovial joint which helps to reduce friction?
How do you calculate cardiac output?
heart rate x stroke volume
What is cardiac output?
the volume of blood leaving the heart each minute
What are voluntary muscles?
Muscles attached to the skeleton and are under your control. They help to move the body.
What are involuntary muscles?
Muscles which work internal organs without conscious effort from you. E.g the cardiac muscle in the heart as it is outside of our control and is an organ. (The heart is not a muscle, it contains muscles)
Where are the triceps located and give an example of when it is used.
On the back of your upper arm behind the Bicep.
Extension at the elbow E.g. during a shot in basket ball
Where are the pectoralis major (pectorals) located and give an example of when it is used.
On your chest and ya nipps stretching back to your deltoids.
Used in adduction and flexion at the shoulder, e.g. during a forehand drive in tennis.
Where is the Gluteus maximus located and give an example of when it is used.
Extension of the leg at the hip, e.g. pushing the body forward when running.
Where are the deltoids located and give an example of when they are used.
They wrap around your shoulder.
Flexion, extension, abduction or circumduction at the shoulder. E.g. during front crawl when swimming.
Where are the latissimus dorsi located and give an example of when it is used.
They stretch from the back of your ribcage round to the side where it meets your external objiques.
Extension, adduction or rotation at the shoulder, e.g. during butterfly when swimming.
Where are the External obliques located and give an example of when it is used.
Stretching from under your arm down the side of your rib cage, along side your latissimus dorsi on our back.
Rotation or flexion at the waist, e.g. preparing to throw a discus.
What do ligaments do?
What do tendons do?
connect a muscle to a bone
What are the three main functions of the cardio vascular system?
-clotting of wounds
Which muscles help move air in and out of the body?
-external intercostal muscles
What is vital capacity?
The maximum air you can inhale in one breath