Flashcards in Sectional tensions and the Civil War ( 1850-1877) Deck (55):
The discovery of gold in __________ resulted in a drastic rise in population for that territory, and in 1849, they asked to be admitted as a state.
Gold was discovered in California at Sutter's Mill, and within a year the population had multiplied. At this time, admitting a new state was a big deal because it could upset the balance between free states and slave states.
The Compromise of 1850 was proposed by __________ in an attempt to resolve matters between the North and South relating to slavery.
Henry Clay, who had originally engineered the Missouri Compromise came up with the Compromise of 1850. This was shortly after Southerners held a convention in 1850 discussing ways to protect their interests.
The Compromise of 1850 was finally adopted when President ______, who strongly opposed it, died in office.
President Taylor died on July 9, 1850. His successor, Millard Fillmore, supported the Compromise.
The main reason that it took so long to admit new states such as Texas and California was the issue of _______.
The main issue when admitting a state was deciding whether slavery would or would not be allowed in that state. A new slave state meant more pro-slave senators and representatives, upsetting the balance.
The _______ Purchase occurred during President Pierce's term, and added a strip of land under the Mexican Cession.
The Gadsden Purchase was purchased to provide a route for a transcontinental railroad to span the lower United States.
The economy in the South was heavily dependent on their export of ______.
By 1860, cotton represented nearly two thirds of all American exports, and was the cash crop of the South. President Lincoln exploited this weakness during the Civil War by blockading the Southern coast to prevent them from making money from cotton exports.
Under President _______________, Commodore Perry went to Japan and opened up relations between the US and Japan.
The Compromise of 1850 was supposed to smooth relations between the North and South, but the ________ Slave Law, which was part of the Compromise, angered Northerners.
The Fugitive Slave Law, which was strengthened under the Compromise of 1850, was designed to return blacks in the north who had run away from the south as slaves.
Laws passed in Northern states to protect runaway slaves within their borders were called ________ Liberty Laws.
These laws were passed as a form of protest against Federal laws which supported the capture of runaway slaves in the free states. By 1856 the only free states which approved the extradition of runaway slaves were California and New Jersey.
The Book ____________ Cabin, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, turned many Northerners against slavery.
Uncle Tom's Cabin was a fictional book which described the life of a slave, and while many Northerners disapproved of slavery, this made them actively oppose it.
______________________ was a famous abolitionist in the North who relied on what he called "moral suasion," the assumption that planters would voluntarily free their slaves once they became aware of the evil they were doing.
William Lloyd Garrison.
Garrison believed in what he called "moral suasion." He thought that he could convince planters that slavery was evil and that they would release their slaves voluntarily. Until he died in 1879, he was a driving force in the abolition movement. However, by 1840 the movement had split and the focus switched from moral suasion to using political means to prohibit slavery by law.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the ________ Compromise.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act, introduced by Senator Douglas, created the Kansas and Nebraska territories. It also repealed the Missouri Compromise, which would have forbidden slavery in those territories.
The Kansas Act resulted in much bloodshed between people who were proslavery and those who were _____________.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act resulted in what was known as "Bleeding Kansas," practically a small-scale Civil War in which over 200 people were killed. This Act repealed the Missouri Compromise that had prohibited slavery north of the line between Missouri and the Rocky Mountains, and it divided Nebraska into the Kansas and Nebraska territories.
"Bleeding Kansas" referred to the months of ________ that occurred after the Kansas-Nebraska Act as pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups clashed.
Bleeding Kansas was how the press referred to the violence which occurred in Kansas. At least 200 people died as guerilla warfare erupted in the territory.
The __________ Party became the opposing party of the Democrats after the disintegration of the Whig Party.
The Republican Party was established in 1854. This party was different from the initial Republican Party which had opposed the Federalists in the early United States.
In the Dred Scott vs Sanford case, the Supreme Court ruled in support of _______.
In the Dred Scott vs Sanford case, Chief Justice Taney ruled that a slave had no right to sue in court, and that Congress had no power to control slavery in the new territories.
The Compromise of 1850 enacted a new and tougher ________ slave act, making it easier for southerners to recover slaves who had run away to the North.
The Compromise of 1850 included a new and tougher fugitive slave act. This part of the Compromise made slavery a national problem, instead of only the South's problem, because suddenly blacks everywhere, including free blacks in the North, were in danger of being hauled into slavery.
The _________ Constitution was a state constitution for Kansas which allowed slavery and was almost passed simply to appease the South.
The Lecompton Constitution was drafted by a convention in Kansas through unfair means, not at all representing the desires of the majority of the territory. Once Kansas voters were allowed to choose, they voted against the Lecompton Constitution.
__________ attempted to arm slaves in Virginia and incite an uprising in the South. He raided a federal arsenal in Harper's Ferry, but was caught and hanged.
A man named John Brown led a group of men in an attempt to steal weapons and arm slaves. He was hanged as a criminal, but many Northerners saw him as a martyr.
The _______ growing season in the North meant that slavery was not economically feasible.
Prior to the 1800's, slavery was legal in the Northern states, but soon became obsolete. It was not economically feasible in the North because much of the farming done in the North involved subsistence farming, and there was a high overhead associated with owning slaves--slaveholders had to house, feed and clothe their slaves.
John Brown took over the Harper's Ferry arsenal in 1859 in an attempt to lead a _____ uprising.
Brown encouraged slaves to murder their owners and claim their freedom. Though captured by Robert E. Lee before his plan went very far, he had many open supporters, including Henry David Thoreau.
A group of Northern abolitionists who actively supported John Brown's plans for the raid on Harper's Ferry were known as "the __________."
By repealing the Missouri Compromise, the ______-Nebraska Act heated up the slave controversy, ultimately leading to bloodshed.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act divided Nebraska into the Kansas and Nebraska Territories, and repealed the part of the Missouri Compromise which prohibited slavery north of the 36-30 line. This meant that the southerners would be able to take their slaves into the new territories, and spurred violence and controversy.
An author named ___________________ wrote a book named "The Impending Crisis in the South," arguing why slavery was not beneficial to the Southern small farmer.
Hinton Rowan Helper.
This book, called the Impending Crisis in the South, alarmed Southern slaveholders. Slaveholders were actually a minority in the South, most Southerners being small farmers who couldn't afford any slaves.
Seven Southern states _______ shortly after President Lincoln was elected.
President Lincoln, a Republican who had been chosen primarily by the anti-slavery North, was elected in 1860. Seven states--S Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas withdrew from the Union.
The President of the ___________ was Jefferson Davis.
Jefferson Davis, once Secretary of War, was elected President of the Confederate States of America.
Severely wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines, General Johnston was replaced by Jefferson Davis's military adviser, _____________ on June 1, 1862.
Robert E. Lee.
Lee took command of the renamed Army of Northern Virginia on June 1, and he immediately began planning an offensive. Lee believed that because of McClellan's superior numbers, any long siege of Richmond would likely lead to a Union victory. Thus, he believed that his forces must strike McClellan's army before the big Union guns were brought to bear on Richmond.
Fort Sumter fell in April, 1861, marking the _________ of the Civil War.
Fort Sumter, in South Carolina, was attacked by Confederate soldiers and surrendered.
After the loss of Fort Sumter, Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to fight the South. At this point, ____ more states seceded joining the original seven.
Four more states seceded in response to this--Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. The four remaining slave states--Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri--stayed in the Union.
_____ broke out in many Northern cities in response to unfair draft practices set forth by the Enrollment Act of 1863.
Unfair draft practices resulted in riots, the most violent one breaking out in New York City. Men could avoid the draft by paying $300, or by hiring a substitute, resulting in the accusation that this was a rich man's war and a poor man's fight.
At the beginning of the Civil War, the Confederacy had the advantage in terms of good ________ for their army.
The Confederacy had many skilled senior officers, while the North started out with mainly inferior officers.
In the Civil War, the Union had the advantage in terms of _________ and manpower.
The Union had a three-to-one advantage in manpower, had highly developed industry, and a system of railroads.
Two major parts of Lincoln's strategy was to take the ___________ River and to blockade the Southern coast with the Navy.
Lincoln decided that he wanted to take the Mississippi River to divide the South, and to blockade the Southern coast to block supplies from Europe. These ideas were suggested by Winfield Scott, a hero of the Mexican War.
The _____ battle of the Civil War, which occurred shortly after the fall of Fort Sumter, was the Battle of Bull Run.
The Battle of Bull Run resulted in an unorganized retreat by the Union soldiers. One of the more famous men under Union General McDowell was George A. Custer, a soldier who would become the youngest general in the Union Army. After the civil war, he became well known for fighting against the Native Americans. Custer and all of the men under him died in the Battle of Little Big Horn against Sitting Bull and his Sioux and Cheyenne Warriors. Crazy Horse, an Oglala Sioux chief was just one of the men that fought under Sitting Bull that day.
General McDowell's failure at the Battle of Bull Run resulted in Lincoln's replacing him with General _________.
Lincoln replaced General McDowell with General McClellan. McClellan spent nine months training the soldiers, and then advanced on Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy.
After failing to capture Richmond, General _________ retreated to Washington DC. Robert E Lee, in an effort to capture D.C., advanced north and fought McClellan at the Battle of Antietam.
McClellan. The Battle of Antietam was one of the bloodiest battles in the war, and although Lee retreated to Virginia, both sides lost many men.
The Confederacy thought that the North's ________ would result in England and France coming to support the South in its war effort.
The North was blockading the coast of the South, preventing trade with Europe. The South believed that England and France, desperate for trade, would intervene.
The Homestead Act, passed during the Civil War, gave land out in the West to settlers who farmed it for ____ years.
The Homestead Act resulted in large numbers of families moving to the west to create farms.
During the Civil War, riots broke out in New York City in opposition to the _____ which had been imposed by Lincoln.
In the Conscription Act of 1863, males between 20 and 45 were eligible to be drafted into the military. Draftees could pay $300 to avoid being drafted, which angered many people who could not afford the price.
After the Battle of Antietam, which was counted as a Northern victory, Lincoln issued the ____________ Proclamation, which freed all slaves in the Confederacy.
Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which could not be enforced, but established the Civil War as being a fight against slavery.
Under pressure from abolitionists and Radical Republicans, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. It did not actually free the slaves, but it made the war a crusade against slavery. As a result, Great Britain, which was against slavery, lost any ________ it had for the South.
Abolitionists and Radical Republicans pressured President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that slaves in the Confederacy were free.
After going through numerous generals, Lincoln finally put General ________________ in charge of all of the Union Armies, who eventually led the Union to victory.
Ulysses S. Grant.
General Grant gained recognition for his role in the West with a string of victories and taking control of the Mississippi. Between Grant and General Sherman, the Union armies carved up the South and pushed General Lee to surrender.
President Lincoln was ____________ by John Wilkes Booth shortly after General Lee's surrender.
An actor named John Wilkes Booth shot President Lincoln in the back of the head.
To help former slaves adjust to life away from the Southern plantations, Congress formed the ________'s Bureau, which helped former slaves with food, clothes, and education.
The Freedmen's Bureau was established in 1865.
Lincoln's policy for how Confederate states were to establish new state governments was called the ___________ Plan.
Lincoln came up with the Ten Percent Plan, which said that once ten percent of the voters in a state swore an oath of loyalty to the Union, a state government could be formed.
After the Civil War, Southern plantation owners were in danger of losing all their black laborers. Many southern states passed Black codes, which _______ the ability of the former slaves to find work and to leave the plantations.
Black Codes severely limited the freedoms of Blacks in the South. One of the main reasons for passing the Codes was to keep Blacks working on the same plantations they had worked as slaves.
Congress was dominated by Radical Republicans, who wanted stiff punishment for the ___________ States after the Civil War.
The Radical Republicans thought that Lincoln's plans for the South were too lenient.
The Radical Republicans tried to pass the Wade-Davis Bill, which would make it nearly impossible for the Confederate states to have ___________.
The Wade-Davis Bill was vetoed by President Lincoln.
Seward's _____ was what critics called Secretary of State Seward's efforts which resulted in the purchase of Alaska from Russia.
This was known as Seward's Folly and happened in 1867, two years after the Civil War.
Under President Johnson, the US enforced the Monroe Doctrine by opposing ______'s attempt to take over Mexico.
France, under Napoleon III, sent troops and installed a new emperor in Mexico. The US pressured France to leave Mexico, thus enforcing the Monroe Doctrine.
The __________ Amendment to the Constitution abolished slavery.
The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, and was passed under President Andrew Johnson's term.
The Military ______________ Act was where the South was divided into five districts ruled by military governors.
Blacks were given the right to ____ in the Fifteenth Amendment.
The 19th Amendment gave _____ the right to vote.
The 19th Amendment was passed in 1920. Women worked for many years in what is known as the women's suffrage movement before they were extended the right to vote. Leaders of this movement included Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.