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Flashcards in sedatives Deck (13):
1

Sedation

state of ↓ irritability & excitement, usually characterized by drowsiness

2

Sedatives

High doses can cause a profound depression of the CNS that resembles anesthesia

Normal doses --> mild CNS depression, animal conscious but calm

* can be a pre-anesthetic drug

3

Alpha 2 agonists

Sedative analgesic & skeletal muscle relaxant
• ↓ anxiety
• provide chemical restraint
• provide some analgesia
** Rapidly reversible!!

4

MOA of Alpha2 agonists

Bind Alpha2 receptors --> ↓ NE & dopamine release in CNS & peripheral NS

5

what effects does alpha 2 agonists have?

• MODULATE PAIN
• control BP, HR
• sedation

Side effects
• ↓ CO

6

Xylazine

Sedative & muscle relaxation
• Transient analgesic effects -- none for extremities

7

Side effects of Xylazine

• Emesis -- pre-tx w/ atropine
• Severe bradycardia --> ↓ CO
• prolonged vasodilation
• Massive ↑ in urine production (2hr)
- do urethral obstruction Sx fast!!

8

what are the reversal agents for xylazine?

Dog - Yohimbine
Horse/ ruminant: Tolazoline

9

Medetomidine
+ reversal agent

> sedation (compared to xylazine) & good analgesia
• reversed w/ Atipamezole

10

Dexmedetodimine

• Sedation ceiling
• Poor analgesia
• Do NOT use Atropine for bradycardia
--> hypertension!

11

Alpha2 antagonists

• Yohimbine / tolazoline
- for xylazine
- Side effects
• hypotension --> death

• Atipamezole
- for medetomidine & detomidine

12

Benzodiazepines

CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE
• Mild tranquilizing effect , Poor sedation
• facilitates GABA binding --> Cl enter --> hyperpolarization of neurons

Drugs
• diazepam
• Midazolam -- Main use = seizure tx
• zolazepam

13

Benzodiasepine reversal

Flumazenil
• in birds
• expensive