Segregating Sound, Developing Markets (Part 2): Blues, Country Blues, Early R&B, and Mainstream Country Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Segregating Sound, Developing Markets (Part 2): Blues, Country Blues, Early R&B, and Mainstream Country Deck (62):
1

Blues gained its professional designation largely from the development of ___ ___.

"Negro Theatre".

2

"Negro Theatre" came about after the...

Civil War.

3

"Negro Theatre" was modelled after early...

White minstrel shows.

4

What are some "Negro Theatre" show types?

Minstrel, travelling road, medicine, vaudeville, carnival, and small circuses.

5

What is Blackface?

Painted white people's faces black and acted out their perceptions of the ethnic group.

6

The African American population often had a hard time finding work as a result of the...

Theatre's Own Booking Agency (TOBA).

7

TOBA was commonly known among African American populations as...

Tough On Black Artists.

8

Classic Blues can be described as ___ and ___, and the ___ take precedent.

Private, personal, lyrics.

9

Classic Blues musicians often had little to no training. True or False?

True, everyone was thought to have blues inherently written within them.

10

Classic Blues evolved quickly from a style treated casually as a form of folk music into a form both...

Professionally and publicly respected.

11

The lyrical content of the Classical Blues was transparent, allowing the music to be more accessible to...

White Americans.

12

The following was said of Classic Blues:
"The Negro felt he was a part of that superstructure after all". This refers to what aspect of Classic Blues?

The fact that the Black musicians were not so separate after all.

13

Classic blues was dominated by men/women?

More than 75% women.

14

Jali

Songs that concern the history of the people.

15

Blues.

Songs that contain lyrics addressing personal experiences.

16

Classic Blues.

Songs performed by black women, typically accompanied by a jazz band.

17

Country Blues.

Songs performed by men of the rural south, typically accompanied by a guitar.

18

Delta Blues.

Rhythmically vigorous and considered to be more "extroverted".

19

Where did the name "Delta Blues" come from?

The Mississippi Delta.

20

What two techniques were first developed in the Delta Blues?

Bottleneck and Slide techniques.

21

What does R&B stand for?

Rhythm and Blues.

22

R&B

A blues based music that uses jazz elements, but was designed to meet the dancing and partying needs of an urban, African American audience.

23

Is R&B secular or sacred?

Secular.

24

Who was a major figure in the transition from race music to R&B?

Louis Jordan.

25

Louis Jordan established...

Shuffle rhythm.

26

What are the two sections of R&B combo?

Rhythm and horn sections.

27

What instruments are in a R&B rhythm section?

Piano, bass, drum, and guitar.

28

What instruments are in a R&B horn section?

Two saxophones and one or two trumpets.

29

Louis Jordan is known for his desire to...

Please audiences.

30

What does it mean to "Straddle the Fence"?

Cater to both black & white audiences.

31

"Straddle the Fence" was a movement in the...

Early 1940's.

32

What was one technique used during the "Straddle the Fence" era?

Book one white and one black artist for each show.

33

Who was Johnny Otis?

A biologically white artist who racially identified himself as black.

34

What were the 4 major recording labels prior to the 1950's?

RCA Victor, Columbia, Decca, Capitol.

35

What does ASCAP stand for?

American Society of Composers and Publishers.

36

What does BMI stand for?

Broadcast Music Incorporated.

37

When was BMI formed, and what was the role of BMI in them music industry?

The 1930's. It allowed hillbilly and race music to expand.

38

What other factor forced recording labels and radio broadcasters to look for alternate source of recordings?

The recording bans during World War II.

39

Indie labels eventually developed successful ___ markets on their own.

Niche.

40

Indie labels forced crossovers...

Between genres.

41

List two employees of recording labels, and what their significance was.

Henry Glove worked for King Records and was largely responsible for the crossover between country and R&B.
Sam Phillips worked for Sun Label and also contributed to the crossover. Sun Label also worked with artists such as Elvis and Johnny Cash.

42

What were the main influences to country?

Fiddle tunes, string band music, traditional folk ballads, hymns, and blues.

43

What are two hybrid styles developed along the way as hillbilly gave way to country music?

Western swing and honky-tonk.

44

Who are the two country artists studied in class?

Eddy Arnold and Hank Williams.

45

The early 1950's saw country music achieve ___ ___.

Mainstream success.

46

What radio station played a major role in the development of country?

WSM.

47

What broadcast on WSM promoted country music?

Grand Ole Opry.

48

Where is the hub of country music?

Nashville.

49

Who can be considered the biggest figure in country music?

Hank Williams.

50

Country music is the music of the ___ people.

Common.

51

Who are three famous R&B figures in the 1950's?

1. B.B. king.
2. Ruth Brown.
3. Ray Charles.

52

R&B split off into _ strands.

3.

53

What are the three ways in which R&B shifted?

1. Transformation of country blues into urban blues.
2. More carefully arranged R&B.
3. Increased use of vocal techniques borrowed from solo gospel singing.

54

B.B. King popularized T. Bone Walkers' innovations, such as...

-Jazzy single note improvisations on guitar.
-Large band arrangements including horn sections.
-Use of gospel inspired vocal style.

55

Who was Ruth Brown?

The biggest feminine R&B star of the 1950's along with Dinah Washington.

56

Where was Ruth Brown's background?

Gospel.

57

Ruth Brown's blended elements include:

Blues, jazz, and pop.

58

Ruth Brown's blended elements combined to produce an "___" style of R&B.

Uptown.

59

Who was Ruth Brown's label, and what did the label become known as after?

Atlantic, which became known as "The House that Ruth Brown Built".

60

___ forms became very prominent in the 1950's, and have continued to develop exponentially.

Hybrid.

61

Why are labels important?

They allow us to see where music originated from, and how it came to be.

62

Music can show direct ___, ___, and ___ affiliation.

Social, economic, political.