Selmams Level Of Perspective Taking Amd Theory Of Mind Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Selmams Level Of Perspective Taking Amd Theory Of Mind Deck (12):
1

Define Social cognition

The understanding of information relating to ourselves and others

This is something that takes time to develop and young children often fail to understand that others have different feelings and experiences from their own

2

What is the development of role-taking?

The ability to understand what others causes from their point of view.

3

What is theory of mind?

The recognition that your thoughts may not be the same as others.

4

What are the five stages used to describe the development of perspective-taking?

>Undifferentiated perspective taking (3-6 yrs)
>Social Informational role taking (6-8 yrs)
>Self-Reflective role taking (8-10 yrs)
>Mutual/Third-Party role taking (10-12 yrs)
>Social role taking (12+
Adult)

Children progress from being egocentric to being quite mature, considering a number of different perspectives and drawing conclusions in line with social conventions/morals

5

Outline the 1(0) stage of Selmans level of perspective taking

Undifferentiated perspective-taking
-3-6yrs
-Children begin to understand that the self and others can have different thoughts and feelings, but they frequently confuse the two.

6

Outline the 2(1) stage of Selmans level of perspective taking

Social-informational perspective-taking
-6-8 years
-Children understand that different perspectives may result, because people have access to different information.

7

Outline the 3(2) stage of Selmans level of perspective taking

Self-reflective perspective-taking
-8-10 years
-Children can 'step in another persons shoes' and view their own thought, feelings and behaviour from another persons perspective. They also recognise that others can do the same

8

Outline the 4(3) stage of Selmans level of perspective taking

Mutual (Third-party) perspective-Taking
-10-12 years
-children can step outside of a two-person situation and imagine how the self and other are viewed from the point of view of a third party.

9

Outline the 5(4) stage of Selmans level of perspective taking

Societal perspective-taking
-12-15 year
-Individuals understand that third-party perspective-taking can be influenced by one or more systems of larger societal values.

10

Evaluation of Selman

+ Research support (Holly, the tree, the fat and her dad) (Interpersonal diallemas)
+Real world application -Perspectibs taking essential for pro-social behaviour
-Expedience is important in determining perspective taking skills -Selman underestimates this.
- Data is correlations - Does cognitive development affect social behaviour, or does social behaviour affect cognitive development

11

Describe Selman and Bryne 1974

-Children between 4 & 10
-Interpersonal diallemas
-Discus perceptive of those involved
-4-6 showed egocentric viewpoints
-6-8 showed social information (different viewpoints)
-8-10 able to see different viewpoints simultaneously

12

What is the grid study?

5x5 grid of 25 boxes
-Adults and Children (4-12)
-4 boxes where hidden in one side.
-participants had to move the correct objects based on what the director could see.
>one specific object visible to director
>two possible objects to move.
-#of egocentric errors recorded along with eye movements.
-Adults made fewer egocentric errors.
-Egocentric errors correlated with age.
-Same amour of time taken looking at egocentric object (adults disregarded object faster to look for mutually visible object.
-Egocentric not outgrown but taught to look at other perspectives
-No change in how humans process information.