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Flashcards in Semester 1 Study Guide Deck (58):
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What are the three subatomic particles of an atom

Protons, neutrons, and electrons

1

What is an isotope

Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain

2

What are the two main types of chemical bonds

Ionic bonds and covalent bonds

3

Difference between cohesion and adhesion

Cohesion- an attraction between molecules with the same substance
Adhesion- an attraction between molecules with a different substance

4

Why are water me clues polar

They are both positive and negative

5

Why are water molecules attracted to each other

Because they are polar

6

What does pH measure?

The concentration if hydrogen ions in a solution

7

4 major classifications if macromolecules

Lipids-insulation
Carbohydrates- provides immediate energy
Proteins- provide structure
Nucleic acid- stores genetic information

8

What is polymerization

Molecules composed of many monomers (macromolecules)

9

What is activation energy?

Energy needed to start a reaction.

10

What is a catalyst and how does it work

It is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy

11

What factors influence enzyme activity?

A rise or decline in pH or in temperature

12

What are biotic and abiotic factors?

Biotic factors are living while abiotic factors are not

13

What are the seven layers of the biosphere

Individual
Species
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biome
Biosphere

14

What is a primary producer?

An organism that makes it's own food (an autotroph)

15

What are consumers?

Organisms that must feed off of other organisms (heterotrophs)

16

What are the six different types of heterotrophs?

Herbivores-eat only plants
Carnivores-eat only animals
Omnivores- eat plants and animals
Detritivores- feed on dead matter
Decomposers- break down organic matter
Scavengers- feed in refuse

17

What's the difference between a food web and a food chain?

A food chain is a series if steps in which organism transfer energy while a food web is a network of interactions formed by energy exchange among organisms

18

Identify three types of ecological pyramids

Pyramids of energy, pyramids of biomass, and pyramids of numbers

19

What is the ten percent rule?

Every time the energy moves up a level, only 1/10 of the original amount is used and stores?

20

What are the three nutrient cycles?

The carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, and the phosphorus

21

What do autotrophs do during photosynthesis?

Turn sunlight into chemical energy

22

What is a limiting nutrient?

A limiting nutrient is a substance that is scarce or slowly cycling out of an ecosystem.

23

What is a niche?

A full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism used those conditions

24

Describe the role that competition plays in shaping communities?

It shapes communities because species compete for space and recourses and usually one wins and lives in the space

25

What is a keystone species

A singular species that has experienced a change in population

26

What is symbiosis? Name and describe 3 major types

Symbiosis is any relationship in which two species live closely together
Mutualism- both species benefit
Parasitism- one organism lives on or inside the other and harms it
Commensalism- one organism is helped and the other harmed

27

What is a pioneer species

The first species to colonize barren areas

28

Describe the three water zones in an aquatic system

Photic zone- 200 meters, sun lit region, nest surface
Aphotic zone- dark region below photic zone
Benthic zone- the dark areas on the bottom of lakes, streams, and oceans

29

What is an estuary and why are they so important?

It's a special kind of wet land formed where a river meets the sea. They're important because they serve as a spawning and nursery ground for many important fish and shellfish species

30

What factors affect population growth?

Geographic range, density and distribution, growth rate, and age structure

31

What's the difference between exponential growth and logistic growth?

Exponential growth is when the larger a population gets the faster it grows(j shaped curve)
Logistic growth is whe a populations growth slows and then stops followed by a period of exponential growth (s shaped curve)

32

What is carrying capacity?

The maximum number of an individual species that an environment can support

33

List three density dependent factors

Competition, predation, and parasitism

34

How has human population changed over time?

It's increased dramatically

35

What are age structure diagram and how are they useful in predicting future population?

They are graphs that show the distribution of various ages in a population. They're useful because they allow scientists to determine if the number of individuals likely to have children will increase in the future and tell us whether a population is growing, steady, or declining in number

36

What is cell theory?

The theory that
1 cells make up all living things
2 cells can only come from other cells
3 cells are the building blocks of life

37

What are the characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Prokaryotes- simple, no nucleus, DNA in cytoplasm, earlier form
Eukaryotes- complex, store DNA in nucleus, later form

38

What structures do plants have that animals don't?

Cell wall and chloroplast

39

What does it mean the a cell membrane is a lipid bilayer?

Because is us composed of two layers of fat cells

40

Why are cell membranes described as a mosaic of different membranes?

It is made up if many different macromolecules. Lipids carbohydrates and proteins

41

How do you determine concentration

You divide the mass of the solute by the volume of the solvent

42

Define solute, solvent, and solution

Solute: substance that is dissolved in a liquid
Solvent: the dissolving substance in a solution
Solution: type of mixture in which all components are evenly distributed

43

What is equilibrium? Are molecules moving or not moving when equilibrium is reached?

Equilibrium is when the concentration is the same on both sides of the cell wall. It does not mean the cells stop moving

44

Define isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions

Isotonic solution- the concentration is equal inside the cell and the solution
Hypertonic solution- the solution is more concentration
Hypotonic- the solution is less concentrated

45

What is the difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis

Phagocytosis- when a cell consumes something for energy
Pinocytosis- when a cell gets energy from the water around it

46

What is cell specialization?

When specific cells are assigned certain jobs

47

What are the four levels of organization in multicellular organisms?

Cell, tissue, organ, organ system

48

What is science and what is it's goal?

Science is an exploration of the natural world with a goal is figuring out how things work and interact with each other

49

What is the difference between an observation and an inference?

Observations- made with five senses, used to make a conclusion about a situation
Inference- applying experience to come to a new understanding about a situation

50

How do scientists develop a hypothesis

Based on prior knowledge and observations

51

What is a controlled experiment?

An experiment where only on variable is changed or altered at a time

52

What steps are used to design a good experiment?

Record all conditions so tests can be repeated and replicated, variables are all tested at one time

53

What is a theory?

An explanation of a situation that is supported with a lot of evidence and data

54

What are the characterizations of living things

Made of cells
Reproduce
Have DNA
Take in materials for energy
Maintain homeostasis
Respond to stimuli
Grow
Evolve and change over time

55

What is homeostasis

The maintenance of a stable internal environment

56

What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?

Sexual- each parent donates gametes to form an individual that is a blend of both parents
Asexual- one cell reproduces into 2 identical cells

57

What measurement to scientists use the most?

Metric system
Temperature- Celsius
Mass- grams
Length - meters
Time- seconds
Volume- liters or mililiters