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Flashcards in Semester 2 Deck (43):
1

Central Nervous System

the part of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous system

made up of sensory and motor neurons. It connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body, and detects and responds to change.

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Neurons

Nerve Cells

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Nerves

A bundle of neurons

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Sensory nerve

a nerve cell in the sense organs. It detects change in the environment and sends a message to the central nervous system.

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Interneurons

a nerve cell that carries nervous impulses through the central nervous system. They provide the link between sensory neurons and motor neurons.

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Motor neurons

the nerve cell that causes an organ, such as a muscle or gland, to respond to a stimulus

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Nucleus

central part of an atom, made up of protons and neutrons; roundish structure inside a cell that acts as the control centre for the cell. Plural = nuclei

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Organelles

small structure in a cell with a special function

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Cytosol

the fluid found inside cells

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Cell membrane

structure that encloses the contents of a cell and allows the movement of some materials in and out

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Cell body

contains the nucleus of a neuron, also called grey matter

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Dendrites

structure that relays information towards the cell body of a neuron

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Axon

an appendage of the neuron that nervous impulses travel along to the next neuron or to an effector organ (muscle or gland)

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Myelin

fatty, white substance that encases the axons (connecting branches) of the neurons in the nervous system

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Synapses

the gap between adjoining neurons across which electrical nervous impulses are sent

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Vesicles

a small cavity, usually filled with fluid

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Neurotransmitters

chemical released from the axon terminals into the synapse between your nerve cells (neurons) during a nerve impulse

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Effector

an organ that responds to a stimulus

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Reflex arc

a nervous pathway involving a small number of neurons. A reflex occurs when nervous impulses travel from the receptor to the spinal cord and then to the effector organ.

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Sense organ

a specialised structure that detects stimuli (such as light, sound, touch, taste and smell) in your environment

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Stimuli

changes in the environment that can be detected and responded to

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Stimulus response system

Stimulus>Receptor>Sensory neuron>Interneuron>Motor neuron>Effector>Response

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Pineal gland

a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns

25

Pancreas

a large gland behind the stomach which secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. Embedded in the pancreas are the islets of Langerhans, which secrete into the blood the hormones insulin and glucagon.

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Glycogen

a substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide which forms glucose on hydrolysis.

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Trachea

a large membranous tube reinforced by rings of cartilage, extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes and conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe.

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Bronchi

any of the major air passages of the lungs which diverge from the windpipe.

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Alveoli

any of the many tiny air sacs of the lungs which allow for rapid gaseous exchange.

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Arteries

any of the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which blood (mainly that which has been oxygenated) is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body.

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Capillaries

Capillaries are the smallest of blood vessels. They serve to distribute oxygenated blood from arteries to the tissues of the body and to feed deoxygenated blood from the tissues back into the veins.

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Veins

A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back to the heart.

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Aorta

the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries). The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation.

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Arterioles

Arterioles are under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, and constrict and dialate to regulate blood flow. The functions of arterioles include: Transport blood from arteries to capillaries.

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Lipids

any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives. Another word for fats. Remember this

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Protein

Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids

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Carbohydrate

Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principal types of nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body.

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Villi

Plural of villus, a tiny finger-like or vascular projection.

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Bile

a bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid which aids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder.

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Nephron

each of the functional units in the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus and its associated tubule, through which the glomerular filtrate passes before emerging as urine.

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Lactic acid

a colourless syrupy organic acid formed in sour milk, and produced in the muscle tissues during strenuous exercise.

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Anticline

A fold that folds upward

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Syncline

A fold that folds upward