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what are types of information sources

- journals: periodical, research, variations, primary and secondary research articles
- primary: original source, time of event, scientific studies / historical event, have method, results and statistics, their own research
- secondary: derived from primary sources, summary, analyse / interpret primary
- newspapers: issued daily, weekly, monthly, contain news, opinions, advertisements, current affairs, may be biased


what are the most reliable information sources and examples of the two

- P: peer reviewed articles, government documents, autobiographies, diaries, personal interviews
- S: dictionaries, textbooks, review articles, encyclopaedia, biographies


what is an unpublished work

- does not have an editor / publisher
- human sources (lecturers, colleagues, friends)
- information online (web pages, wikipedia)


how do you evaluate information (CRAAP)

- C: currency, when was it written is it still current
- R: relevance, is the topic related, don't lose track
- A: authority, who wrote it, what are their qualifications, what experience of they have in the field, are they biased
- A: accuracy, what type of source is this
- P: purpose, where was it published, bias, who is the audience, academic publishers or commercial publisher


what are critical reading strategies / critical analysis

- active reading, question, compare and evaluate material
- determine value of material
- separate fact from opinion
- determine whether to accept or reject information being presented
- who is author / audience, what is main message of text, what evidence has been used, are there counter-arguments, do you agree or disagree


what is active reading

- reading with purpose
- setting goals for a reading session
- focusing attention
- knowing what is important and what isnt
- creating an overview (notes, diagrams, flow charts)
- text books: headings, introduction, conclusion, summary
- article: abstract, conclusion


what is SQ3R

- reading comprehension method
- S: survey, flick through whole chapter or article, look at headings and diagrams
- Q: turn headings into questions to be answered
- R: read, one paragraph at a time
- R: recite, after each paragraph, write down main points, pretend to explain to someone else
- R: review, can you answer questions from Q


what is PARS

- process approach reading strategy
- scanning: find specific information
- skimming: get a gist of all the information at hand
- reading topic sentences: mental framework of main ideas, how they are linked
- reading for detail: every word beginning to end, understand detail


what is referencing / its purpose

- method of acknowledging sources of information used in written work
- attribute rightful ownership of ideas to creator / author
- acknowledging you have read the source and acknowledging original source
- verify cited information
- avoid plagiarism


what is in text and end text

- acknowledge briefly the idea that was used in / after sentence (Reece, 2018) / according to Reece (2018)
- list each reference used in text in a more extensive version (author, year, title, publisher)


what is plagiarism

- copy or paraphrase ideas from another source without acknowledging authors
- affects academic integrity, not acceptable


summary of in text

- as narrative or brackets at end of sentence
- 1-2: use all authors always
- 3-5: use all authors first use and second et al.,
- 6 or more: use first author and et al., always


summary of end text

- must occur in text
- alphabetical order
- (year)
- name of article (first capital)
- different for books, journals etc
- must have DOI or retrieval statement


what is the purpose of a research report / lit review

- record, report facts / results / information / research
- wide overview of field
- develops an argument, reviews previous research


what language is used in academic writing

- third person: lit review, paraphrasing, reports (he, she, it, they, them)
- impersonal: formal, past tense, succinct


what is active vs passive voice

- A: subject performs action of a verb, direct / forceful, the whale killed the seal
- P: subject does not perform action of verb, the seal was killed by the whale


what is paraphrasing

- expressing the meaning of something using different words, especially to achieve greater clarity
- does not mach source word for word
- retains and fully communicates original meaning
- similar length
- original source must be referenced
- grasp full meaning of original sentence / paragraph
- sentences significantly restructured


what is summarising

- putting main ideas into your own words but including only main points
- does not match source word for word
- brief overview, shorter than original text
- must reference original source


what is a quotation

- match the source word for word (identical)
- usually a brief segment of the text
- not allowed in paraphrasing assignment or literature review


what is the purpose of a lit review

- systematic overview of topic using information from published sources
- extract themes in current knowledge (strengths / weaknesses, pros / cons)
- identifies gaps in knowledge
- speculates further research
- integrates and evaluates relevant literature according to the guiding concept and issues / themes of topic


how to get started on a lit review

- add headings (title, intro, main topics, conclusions)
- plan: key areas, subjects
- research: key words, databases, range of views, gather information
- reading: read articles, focus on specific area
- taking notes: key points / themes, key research question
- outline: organise information into themes / main points, add to scaffold, start writing
- integrate evidence: strengthen position
- read and edit: 6 C's, check subheadings (2-3 references), check tables, figures labelled, vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, spelling


best tips for lit reviews

- cover breadth of views
- clear understanding of key concepts
- clarify important terminology
- logically flow from one idea to next
- critically discuss ideas presented
- evaluate how different authors present ideas
- indicate research gap for future recommendations


what is the purpose of an essay

- use literature as a support for arguments
- selection supporting one argument
- states position author will argue (no counter argument)
- thesis statement (focus of essay)
- relevant examples, authoritative quotes


what to avoid in an essay

- not addressing question
- no clear intro
- not having a clear argument
- describing rather than analysing
- inflated / elaborate style
- no supporting evidence
- making assumptions


similarities of lit review and essay writing

- both based on same research
- both have intro, main body, conclusion and references
- main difference is on where the emphasis is placed


what are two types of data

- quantitative: numerical, ratio / interval, measured, tables / charts / figures, p value
- qualitative: descriptive, ordinal / nominal, interviews, questionares, coding condenses information


what are types of descriptive statistics

- basic measurements, uni-variable
- frequencies, percentages: categorical / nominal
- mean: normally distributed (bell), 'typical' value, continuous data
- median: not distributed normally, value occurs in real sample, continuous
- standard deviation: variability of scores in a particular sample, spread of samples, continuous


what is significance testing

- interest is generally in comparing two groups
- statistical test depends on format of data, sample size and study design


what is a null hypothesis

- if true, there is no association between two measured variables or no difference between two groups


what is a p value

- probability value
- calculated probability, measure if observed results is due to chance
- P>0.05: null hypothesis true, chance, statistically insignificant, trend was present
- P<0.05: null hypothesis rejected, statistically significant
P<0.02: null hypothesis rejected, statistically highly significant