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Flashcards in Seminars Deck (16)
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1

What is the fractional muscle protein turnover

balance of synthesis and breakdown in the body

2

What is the rate of fractional muscle protein turnover

1-2% a day = ~300-600g of protein.

3

What is a tracer

a chemically identical compound, which is distinct in some way i.e. changing isotope

4

Give 2 advantages of stable isotopes

Non-Radioactive
No risk
Naturally occurring
Provides dynamic measure of metabolism
Behave biologically the same

5

Give 2 disadvantages of stable isotopes

Can be invasive
Expensive
Long test days involved
Biological analyses are expensive/specialist
May have some side-effects

6

Why is IV administration prefered to oral

there is a steady infusion rate compared with oral

7

Describe the process of isotope measurement

To measure isotope levels, a pre-cursor is taken i.e. blood sample to identify the amino acids. Then a muscle biopsy is taken to sample the proteins and analysed with mass spectrometry.
You can then calculate whole-body protein metabolism, protein digestion, tissue protein synthesis, and the incorporation of amino acids into body proteins.

8

How is FSR calculated

FSR = deltaEprecursor/Eprecursor x time between biopsies X100%

9

What does Eprecursor (FSR calculation mean)

average enrichment in precursor pool

10

State 4 of Hills Causal criteria

Strength.
Consistency.
Specificity.
Temporality.
Biologic gradient.
Plausibility.
Coherence.
Experimental evidence.
Analogy.

11

What is HMB

a metabolite of leucine

12

Give 2 effects of HMB

• Increases protein synthesis of myofibrils
• Changes phosphorylation of downstream messengers
• Repair tissue, so muscles less prone to damage (OA reductase)
• Stops degradation of myofibrillar proteins

13

How does protein degradation occur

Ubiquitin is tagged to a protein, which is sent to the proteasome for degradation

14

Why don't we want to prevent the breakdown of protein

We don’t want to stop the breakdown of muscle protein, as it is essential for adaptation

15

What beneficial effect does green coffee have

Anti-hypertensive

16

What does green coffee contain which increases fat metabolism

caffeic acid