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Flashcards in Sensation & Perception Deck (68):
1

top-down processing

we perceive by filling in the gaps in what we sense
I _ant ch_co_late ic_ cre_am

2

bottom-up processing

use the features of the object itself to build a perception
A /-\

3

absolute threshold

smallest amount of stimulus that we can detect about 50% of the time
in complete darkness, we can see candle flame from 30 miles away

4

subliminal

below threshold

5

signal detectionn theory

absolute thresholds are not really absolute, can change based on motivation or physical state

6

false positive

you think something happened (your name was said, your phone went off) but it actually didn't

7

false negative

something happens that you should detect, but it doesnt't

8

difference threshold

noticeable difference, difference between 2 stimuli that we can detect 50% of the time (wall color)

9

Webers law

to notice a difference, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant proportion, not a constant amount

10

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus

11

transduction

changing one form of energy to another

12

vision

most dominating sense

13

PHASE ONE (vision)

gathering light

14

optic chiasm

optic nerves cross

15

PHASE FOUR (vision)

goes to visual cortex located in occipital lobe of cerebral cortex

16

PHASE TWO (vision)

get light into eye

17

PHASE THREE (vision)

changes energy form one form to another. takes waves and turns them into an electrical signal

18

trichromatic theory (vision)

3 types of cones (red, blue, green)
millions of color combos

19

opponent-process theory (vision)

sensory receptors come in pairs (red/green, yellow/blue, black/white)

20

figure ground relationship

first perceptual decision is what image is the figure and what is the background

21

gestalt

whole

22

gestalt psychology

how we group objects together

23

proximity

things close together belong together

24

similarity

things similar in appearance and associated in the same group

25

continuity

objects that form a continuous form are perceived as being in the same group

26

closer

top-downm processing, fill in the gaps

27

constancy

objects change in our eyes constantly as we or they move

28

perceived motion

flip book effect

29

autokinetic effect

if you stare at a white spotlight in dark room, it appears to move

30

depth cues

depth perception (if you are able to crawl)

31

monocular cues

only need one eye to use these (used in art classes to show depth)
- linear perspective
- interposition
- relative size
- texture gradient
- shadowing

32

binocular cues

need both eyes to use these cues
- retinal disparity
- convergence

33

perceptual set

a mental disposition

34

classical conditioning

dogs would salivate before given food.
passive learning (automatic, don't have to think about it)

35

US/UCS

unconditional stimulus
something that elicits a natural, reflexive response

36

UR/UCR

unconditional response
response to unconditional stimulus

37

NS/CS

neutral stimulus/conditioned stimulus
something that elicits no response originally, then has an effect

38

acquisition

body begins to link together neutral stimulus with unconditional stimulus

39

spontaneous recovery

sometimes after extinction, the CR still randomly appears after the CS is presented

40

generalization

something is so similar to the CS that you get a CR
(if you are afraid of one breed of dog, you become afraid of all dogs)

41

discrimination

something so different to the CS so you do not get a CR

42

CS

conditioned response
responce to US

43

operant conditioning

learner is NOT passive
learning based on consequence

44

Edward Thorndike

law of effect
behavior followed by a reward will increase

45

B. F. Skinner

king of operant conditioning
used a skinner box to prove his concepts

46

reinforcement

anything that follows a behavior, MAKING THE BEHAVIOR MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR, strengthens the behavior

47

positive reinforcement

+
addition of something pleasant
giving baby bottle
(baby crying, give baby bottle, baby stops crying)

48

negative reinforcement

-
removal of something unpleasant
stopping crying
(baby crying, give baby bottle, baby stops crying)

49

punishment

anything that follows a behavior and makes it less likely to happen in the future

50

positive punishment

adding something unpleasant
(getting spanked, getting a ticket)

51

negative punishment

removal of something pleasant
(late for curfew=car keys taken away

52

PUNISHMENT IS.....

NOT NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT

53

shaping

reinforcing succession
reward for going on correct side of cage, then area, then lever, then pushing down lever

54

chaining

subjects taught a number of responses in order to receive a reward

55

primary reinforcer

things that are in themselves rewarding
kissing

56

secondary reinforcer

things we have learned to value
applause, money
money is a special secondary reinforcer bc it can be traded for anything

57

token economy

every time a desired behavior is performed , a token is given
potty training

58

continuous reinforcement

reinforced the behavior every time the behavior is exhibited
extinction comes quickly

59

partial reinforcement

reinforce behavior only some of the times it is exhibited

60

fixed ratio

provides a reinforcement after a SET number of responses

61

variable ratio

provides reinforcment after a RANDOM number of responses
ex: gambling

62

interval schedules

amount of time passed before reinforcement
ex: paycheck

63

observation learning

we learn from modeling behavior from others

64

mirror neurons

they fire when you do something or when someone else does something

65

Edward Toleman

latent learning
rat maze experiment- when there was an award at the end, the rats were faster

66

intrinsic motivation

the desire to perform some behavior for its own sake
personally rewarding

67

extrinsic motivation

performing behaviors for external reward or to avoid punishment
go to school so parents won't get mad

68

insight learning

learning through the "ah-ha" experience