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Flashcards in Sensation and Perception Deck (70):
0

Sensation

How you experience your environment by bringing in energy through your eyes, ears, etc.

**associated with bottom-up processing

1

Perception

How you understand your environment by interpreting your sensations

**associated with top-down processing

2

Bottom-Up Processing

Analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory info
*new
**detecting lines, angles, and colors that form the horses, riders, and surroundings

3

Top-down processing

Guided by higher level mental process, such as experience, motivation, and expectations
*old
**consider the painting's title, notice the apprehensive expressions, and attend to aspects that give meaning

4

Perceptual adaptation

Ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field

5

Psychophysics

The study of how physical energy relates to our psychological experience

6

Transduction

Conversion of one form of energy into another

7

Absolute threshold

The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
**basically tells us absolute limit of our sensation

8

Difference threshold

The minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time
**also called just noticeable difference

9

Weber's Law

Difference thresholds differ by a percentage rather than amount

10

Signal detection theory

Predicts when we will detect a particular stimulus amid competing background stimuli

11

Subliminal messages

Anything below our absolute threshold

13

Sensory adaptation

Decreased sensation due to constant stimulation

14

Intensity (brightness)

height of a wave

15

hue (color)

length of the wave
long-red
short-blue

16

pupil

adjustable opening in the center of the eye, lets light in

17

iris

a ring of muscle that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

18

cornea

protects the eye and bends light to provide focus

19

lens

transparent structure behind pupil that changes shape through accommodation to focus images on the retina

20

retina

the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, contains receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the process of visual info

21

optic nerve

nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

22

blind spot

point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind spot" because there are no receptor cells there

23

fovea

central point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster

24

acuity

sharpness of vision

25

nearsightedness

far blurry

26

farsightedness

near blurry

27

how does light energy reach the brain?

light energy --> rods and cones --> bipolar cells --> ganglion cells (axons form the optic)

28

rods

peripheral of retina
detect black, white, and gray
twilight or low light

29

cones

center of retina
color vision
daylight or well-lit conditions

30

feature detectors

nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features
shape, angle, movement

31

parallel processing

processing of several aspects of an object simultaneously

32

trichromatic theory

cones in your eye combine to form all the colors you can see
*red, green, blue

33

opponent-process theory

your eye sensory receptors work in pairs
*red/green, yellow/blue, black/white

34

volume

height of the wave

35

pitch

frequency of the wave

36

measuring unit for sound

decibels

37

transduction of the ear

1.) sound waves hit the ear drum
2.) vibrations travel through the middle ear, the oval window, and the cochlea
3.) hair cells vibrate sending impulses up the auditory nerve to the thalamus

38

Cochlea

lined with a mucus called the basilar membrane, containing hair cells

39

Biology of ear

study the ear diagram

40

place theory

the pitch we hear depends on the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

41

frequency theory

the pitch we hear depends on the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve

42

conduction deafness

hearing loss caused by something going wrong with the vibrations through the ear

43

sensorineuronal deafness

hair cells are damaged; typically caused by loud noises

44

four skin senses

pressure, pain, warmth, and cold

45

gate-control theory

the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass onto the brain

46

papillae

bumps on our tongues where our taste buds are located

47

five taste sensation

sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami

48

Smell

olfaction, linked to taste and emotion,
fragrance molecules reach receptors at top of nose --> brain's olfactory bulb --> limbic system (memory and emotion)

49

kinesthetic

the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

50

vestibular

sense of balance; informs our body's of orientation in space

51

selective attention

focus of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

52

inattentional blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is diverted elsewhere

53

change blindness

failing to notice a visual change when our attention is diverted elsewhere

54

gestalt psychology

focused on how our minds group things together and tend to look at the "whole" picture

55

depth perception

ability to see objects in 3D; enables us to judge distance

56

visual cliff

once babies are old enough to crawl, they have developed depth perception and will not cross off a cliff

57

monocular cues

methods used by a single eye to judge depth perception

58

binocular cues

methods used by both eyes to judge depth perception

59

retinal disparity

our eyes each see a different image; the closer the image the greater the disparity

60

convergence

as an object nears our face, our eyes come together

61

phi phenomenon

illusion of movement created when two or more lights adjacent blink on and off in quick succession

62

perceptual consistency

perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal image change (color, shape, size)

63

perceptual set

a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

64

human factors psychology

explores how people and machines interact
**explores how machines and physical environments can be adapted to human behaviors

65

parapsychology

the study of paranormal phenomena

66

extrasensory perception (ESP)

controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input NO PROOF

67

telepathy

mind to mind communication

68

clairvoyance

perceiving remote events

69

precognition

perceiving future events

70

psychokinesis

mind over matter