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Flashcards in Sensation and Perception Deck (96)
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1

first researcher interested in individual differences

Galton

2

founder of Gestalt psychology

Wertheimer

3

Measuring the relationship between physical stimuli and psychological responses to the stimuli

Psychophysics

4

Absolute Thresholds

Minimum of stimulus energy that is needed to activate a sensory system

5

perception of a stimuli below a threshold that occurs without conscious awareness

Subliminal perception

6

How different two stimuli (in magnitude) must be before they are perceived to be different

Difference Thresholds

7

Just noticeable difference (JND)

amount of change necessary to predict the difference between two stimuli

8

Weber’s law

change in stimulus intensity needed to produce a JND divided by the stimulus intensity of the standard stimulus is a constant; ratio is more important than absolute difference

9

Fechner’s law

sensation increases more slowly as intensity increases

10

Steven’s power law

criticism of Fechner

11

Signal Detection Theory

Other, nonsensory factors influences what the subject says they sense

12

Response bias

tendency of subjects to respond in a particular way due to nonsensory factors

13

graphically summarize a subject’s response in a signal detection experiment; Swets

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve

14

Reception

first step in all sensory information processing; receptors that react to physical external energy

15

Transduction

translation of physical energy into neural impulses or action potentials

16

clear, domelike window in the front of eye, gathers and focuses incoming light

Cornea

17

hole in the iris, contracts and dilates

Pupil

18

colored part of the eye, contains involuntary muscles and autonomic nerve fibers; controls the size of the pupil

Iris

19

behind the iris, helps control the curvature of light and can focus near or distant objects

Lens

20

back of the eye, screen filled with neural elements and blood vessels, image-detecting

Retina

21

Duplexity (duplicity theory of vision)

retina contains two kinds of photoreceptors

22

Cones

color vision and perceiving fine detail; most effective in bright light

23

Rods

allow perception of achromatic colors in reduced illumination; low sensitivity to detail and not involved in color

24

Fovea

in middle of retina; contains only cones

25

Optic chiasm

fibers from the nasal half of the brain cross paths

26

information from the eye goes to opposite side of brain

Nasal fibers

27

information from the eye goes to same side of brain

Temporal fibers

28

certain cells in the cortex are maximally sensitive to certain features of stimuli

Feature detection theory

29

give information about the orientation and boundaries of an object

Simple cells

30

more advanced information about orientation, such as movement

Complex cells