Flashcards in Sensation and Perception Deck (72):
Transduction (aligns with sensation)
conversion of physical electromagnetic, auditory, and other info into electrical signals in the nervous system
processing of the information collected from external how we make sense of the world
study of relationship between physical nature of stimuli and sensations and perceptions they evoke.
ganglia (such as sensory ganglia)
collections of neurons found outside of central that transmit information from receptors to brain
Type of sensory receptors
hair cells- responsible to movement of fluid in inner ear
Noiceptors- pain receptors or noxious stimuli
Osmoreceptors- respons to osmolarity or homeostasis of
Olfactory receptors- respond to volatile compounds
taste receptors- response to dissolved compounds t
the minimum amount of stimulus that affect a change in perception
minimum amount of stimulus energy needed to activate sensory system. it is a threshold of sensation and not perception.
subliminal perception is when
the perception created is by a stimulus below the threshold of consciousness
minimum difference in magnitude between two stimuli before they can perceive a difference.
Webber's Law - ratio
the difference (just noticeable difference) between two stimuli / divided by the original stimuli...
ex. 3Hz/ 440 Hz. = .68 percent. Thus a difference of 1000hz and 1006.8 will be noticeable
signal detection theory
focuses on changes in perception of the same stimuli based on internal (psych) and external (environment) contexts
catch trails are ones in which
noise trails are ones in which
the signal is presented
the signal is NOT presented
hits vs misses
false alarms vs correct negatives
subject perceives signal vs subject fails to perceive
subject perceives signal but none given vs perceive no signal when none was given
Adaptation can have sensory (physiological) and perceptual (psychological) components
eyes adjusting to light and not feeling clothes on our body until we have reason to think about them
thick structural layer covering most of the eye (white of th eye)
provide blood and nutrition and they lay between scelera and retina. They continue into as the iris
innermost layer of the eye with photoreceptors
light first passes through this clear layer
anterior chamber vs posterior chamber
in front of the iris vs behind the iris but front of lens
dilator pupilae and contractor pupilae
iris is composed of both of these
iris composed of 2 muscles:
dilator pupillae and constrictor pupillae
ciliary body and posterior chamber make this substance
aqueous humor for bathing front of eye
canal of schliemann
is where the aq humor is drained
ciliary muscle controls the lens and is under parasympathetic control changing shape of lens known as
retinas function is to
convert incoming photons to light to electrical signals.
duplecity theory of retina proves the existence of cones and rodes (low sensitivity)
cones- color, rods- black and white only contain rhodopson
center part of retina that only contains cones but most of retina is rods
rods and cones connect with this and they synapse with ganglion cells forming the optic nerve.
resolution decreases with bipolarness and color vision has greater sense of detail because
number of cones converging onto ganglian cells is less than rod. converging results in loss of info
Amacrine or horizontal cells
receive input from mulitipal retinal cells in th exam area before they pass onto ganglian cells. They are important cells for edge detection and contrast
At the optic chiasm
the nerves traveling to the brain from the nasal half of each retina cross paths carrying the temporal visual field.
from the chiasm, the pathways are called optic tracts
temporal fibers with nasal visual field do not cross chiasm means that all fibers from left field gets projected into right side of brain and vice versa.
after optic chiasm the optic tracts info goes to
Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus. through radiations in the temporal and parietal lobes to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe. Also into the superior colliculus (reflective eye mvmts and visual stimuli
being able to process color, shape, and motion
shape if seen by using...
parvocellular cells which work best at slow or stationary objects
motion is detected by...
magnocelular cells bc they have high temporal resolution but they have low spatial and details of object
areas of high and low pressure resulting from compressed area (such as closing hands during clap)
lower frequency sound waves travel farther thus they penetrate deeper into
outer visible part of ear
next sound wave hits auditory canal
external auditory meatus
then sound waves his ear drum
starts to vibrate causes the 3 small bones (incus, malleus, and stapes) to vibrate
stapes is attached to small oval window which also starts to vibrate resulting in
cochlea to release fluid
fluid flows into cochlea tip and out eventually going back out to round window to be pushed out
causes an elctrical impulse to brain
fluid does not go back to oval membrane and goes to round because of membrane
organ of corti
organ or corti composed of
basilar membrane and tectoral membrane
middle ear is the
region of three small bones
inner ear is the
cochlea and other things inside
hair cells in cochlea move around in hair bundles
potassium and calcium rushes in causes action potential which then goes to the brain
cochlea is used to differentiate sounds based on frequencies.
20hz to 20K hz
is human rangle of audible frequency
low frequencies are picked up my tip of cochlea while
high frequency are picked up by base of cochlea
the particular part of cochlea sends info to
particular part of primary auditory cortex which is also sensitive to various frequency sounds.
this process of maping low and high F sounds is called
types, intensity, timing, and location
types of senses
temperature (thermoception), pressure (mechanoception), pain (nociception), and position (proprioception)
types of neurons for timing perception:
non-adapting which fires steady continuesly.
Slow adapting- fires quickly and then slowed down.
fast adapting- fast, stops, and then fast.
map of body in brain (sensory strip)
body's position and balance (cognitive and subconscious) for example receptor in muscle. Spindle will be stretched out firing signals to the brain.
body's movement. (behavioral not cognitive or subconscious)
TrpV1 receptor sensetive to both
pain (nociceotion) and temperature (thermoception)
pain and temperate have fast medium and slow fibers
dependent Big diameter (less resistance) and more myelinsheats. .
medium fiber is from A delta fiber
chemical signal released by one member of species triggering innate response in another member same species
olfactory nerves send info to the olfactory bulb which relay information to olfactory tract to regions of brain
types of tastes
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. Flavor is affected by other genes such as smell, mood, and texture.
taste buds are
little bumps on tongue called papillae which send info to thalamus
addiction to somatosensaitons:
t types of somatosensory receptors:
Pacinian corpuscles- reposed to deep pressure and vibration,
Meissner corpuscles- répond to light touh
merkle cells- respond to deep pressure and texture.
Ruffini ending- respond to stretch
Free nerve endings- respond to pain and temperate
two point threshold
minimum distance between two points on skin that will be felt as different stimulus
endolymph of ear
fluid that fills the cochlea and membranous labyrinth. perilymph is found in the bony labyrinth.
when you feel like an image is connected by lines even though the image is not. allusion of continuation.