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Flashcards in Sensation and Perception Deck (72):
1

Transduction (aligns with sensation)

conversion of physical electromagnetic, auditory, and other info into electrical signals in the nervous system

2

Perception

processing of the information collected from external how we make sense of the world

3

Psychophysics

study of relationship between physical nature of stimuli and sensations and perceptions they evoke.

4

ganglia (such as sensory ganglia)

collections of neurons found outside of central that transmit information from receptors to brain

5

Type of sensory receptors

photoreceptors
hair cells- responsible to movement of fluid in inner ear
Noiceptors- pain receptors or noxious stimuli
thermoreceptors
Osmoreceptors- respons to osmolarity or homeostasis of
blood
Olfactory receptors- respond to volatile compounds
taste receptors- response to dissolved compounds t

6

threshold

the minimum amount of stimulus that affect a change in perception

7

absolute threshold

minimum amount of stimulus energy needed to activate sensory system. it is a threshold of sensation and not perception.

8

subliminal perception is when

the perception created is by a stimulus below the threshold of consciousness

9

difference threshold

minimum difference in magnitude between two stimuli before they can perceive a difference.

10

Webber's Law - ratio

the difference (just noticeable difference) between two stimuli / divided by the original stimuli...
ex. 3Hz/ 440 Hz. = .68 percent. Thus a difference of 1000hz and 1006.8 will be noticeable

11

signal detection theory

focuses on changes in perception of the same stimuli based on internal (psych) and external (environment) contexts

12

catch trails are ones in which
noise trails are ones in which

the signal is presented
the signal is NOT presented

13

hits vs misses
false alarms vs correct negatives

subject perceives signal vs subject fails to perceive
subject perceives signal but none given vs perceive no signal when none was given

14

Adaptation can have sensory (physiological) and perceptual (psychological) components

eyes adjusting to light and not feeling clothes on our body until we have reason to think about them

15

sclera

thick structural layer covering most of the eye (white of th eye)

16

choroidal vessels

provide blood and nutrition and they lay between scelera and retina. They continue into as the iris

17

retina

innermost layer of the eye with photoreceptors

18

cornea

light first passes through this clear layer

19

anterior chamber vs posterior chamber

in front of the iris vs behind the iris but front of lens

20

dilator pupilae and contractor pupilae

iris is composed of both of these

21

iris composed of 2 muscles:

dilator pupillae and constrictor pupillae

22

ciliary body and posterior chamber make this substance

aqueous humor for bathing front of eye

23

canal of schliemann

is where the aq humor is drained

24

ciliary muscle controls the lens and is under parasympathetic control changing shape of lens known as

accomadation

25

retinas function is to

convert incoming photons to light to electrical signals.

26

duplecity theory of retina proves the existence of cones and rodes (low sensitivity)

cones- color, rods- black and white only contain rhodopson

27

FOVEA

center part of retina that only contains cones but most of retina is rods

28

bipolar cells

rods and cones connect with this and they synapse with ganglion cells forming the optic nerve.

29

resolution decreases with bipolarness and color vision has greater sense of detail because

number of cones converging onto ganglian cells is less than rod. converging results in loss of info

30

Amacrine or horizontal cells

receive input from mulitipal retinal cells in th exam area before they pass onto ganglian cells. They are important cells for edge detection and contrast

31

At the optic chiasm

the nerves traveling to the brain from the nasal half of each retina cross paths carrying the temporal visual field.

32

from the chiasm, the pathways are called optic tracts

temporal fibers with nasal visual field do not cross chiasm means that all fibers from left field gets projected into right side of brain and vice versa.

33

after optic chiasm the optic tracts info goes to

Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus. through radiations in the temporal and parietal lobes to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe. Also into the superior colliculus (reflective eye mvmts and visual stimuli

34

parallel processing

being able to process color, shape, and motion

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shape if seen by using...

parvocellular cells which work best at slow or stationary objects

36

motion is detected by...

magnocelular cells bc they have high temporal resolution but they have low spatial and details of object

37

sound wave

areas of high and low pressure resulting from compressed area (such as closing hands during clap)

38

lower frequency sound waves travel farther thus they penetrate deeper into

cochlea

39

pinna

outer visible part of ear

40

next sound wave hits auditory canal

external auditory meatus

41

then sound waves his ear drum

starts to vibrate causes the 3 small bones (incus, malleus, and stapes) to vibrate

42

stapes is attached to small oval window which also starts to vibrate resulting in

cochlea to release fluid

43

fluid flows into cochlea tip and out eventually going back out to round window to be pushed out

causes an elctrical impulse to brain

44

fluid does not go back to oval membrane and goes to round because of membrane

organ of corti

45

organ or corti composed of

basilar membrane and tectoral membrane

46

middle ear is the

region of three small bones

47

inner ear is the

cochlea and other things inside

48

hair cells in cochlea move around in hair bundles

potassium and calcium rushes in causes action potential which then goes to the brain

49

cochlea is used to differentiate sounds based on frequencies.

Auditory processing

50

20hz to 20K hz

is human rangle of audible frequency

51

low frequencies are picked up my tip of cochlea while

high frequency are picked up by base of cochlea

52

the particular part of cochlea sends info to

particular part of primary auditory cortex which is also sensitive to various frequency sounds.

53

this process of maping low and high F sounds is called

tonotypical maping

54

somatosensation

types, intensity, timing, and location

55

types of senses

temperature (thermoception), pressure (mechanoception), pain (nociception), and position (proprioception)

56

types of neurons for timing perception:

non-adapting which fires steady continuesly.
Slow adapting- fires quickly and then slowed down.
fast adapting- fast, stops, and then fast.

57

Sensory adaptation

down regulation

58

sensory amplification

up regulation

59

Somatasonsory Homunculus

map of body in brain (sensory strip)

60

Proprioception

body's position and balance (cognitive and subconscious) for example receptor in muscle. Spindle will be stretched out firing signals to the brain.

61

Kinesthesia

body's movement. (behavioral not cognitive or subconscious)

62

TrpV1 receptor sensetive to both

pain (nociceotion) and temperature (thermoception)

63

pain and temperate have fast medium and slow fibers

dependent Big diameter (less resistance) and more myelinsheats. .

medium fiber is from A delta fiber

64

pheromones

chemical signal released by one member of species triggering innate response in another member same species

65

olfactory epithelium

olfactory nerves send info to the olfactory bulb which relay information to olfactory tract to regions of brain

66

types of tastes

sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. Flavor is affected by other genes such as smell, mood, and texture.

67

taste buds are

little bumps on tongue called papillae which send info to thalamus

68

addiction to somatosensaitons:
t types of somatosensory receptors:


Pacinian corpuscles- reposed to deep pressure and vibration,
Meissner corpuscles- répond to light touh
merkle cells- respond to deep pressure and texture.
Ruffini ending- respond to stretch
Free nerve endings- respond to pain and temperate

69

two point threshold

minimum distance between two points on skin that will be felt as different stimulus

70

endolymph of ear

fluid that fills the cochlea and membranous labyrinth. perilymph is found in the bony labyrinth.

71

Gestalt principles

when you feel like an image is connected by lines even though the image is not. allusion of continuation.

72

optic chiasm destruction affects the

temporal visual field in both eyes.