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Biology of The Mind > Senses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Senses Deck (31):
0

Give the pathway light takes to the eye?

Detected and focused by the lens, through pupil, focused to fovea, centred to optic nerve then leaves

1

What is the sequence of events for taste?

Dissolved molecules interact with receptors, the membrane depolarises and an action potential is fired, intracellular calcium intake increases, NT is realised, excitation or afferent nerve fibres.

2

Explain the structure of cortical modules?

2 mm squared, blobs to interpret colour, orientation columns both left and right, ocular dominance columns and inter blob regions

3

Give the sequence of events for smell?

Odourants bind to receptors on cilia and G-proteins are activated. cAMP is produced and binds to calcium and sodium channels. Channels open and chloride ions channels open which causes depolarisation.

4

Give the three types of papillae in order of small to large?

Fungiform, foliate and circumvallate

5

Where are photoreceptors rods and cones found?

In the fovea and the back of the retinal in the black pigment epithelial cells.

6

Give the four types of cells in the retina?

Photoreceptors, bipolar, horizontal and retinal ganglion.

7

Give the pathway of smell from receptors to target?

Olfactory receptors to olfactory bulb to olfactory tracts to target in the cortex.

8

What are the three classes of somatosensory receptors?

Tactile- mechanoreceptors
Temp. hot and cold- thermal
Nociceptors-all three

9

Give three steps to turn sound into nerve impulses?

1. Stereocilia are disturbed to give mechanoelectrical transduction.
2. The scala media endolymph is high in potassium, opening of channels causes depolarisation.
3. Calcium causes NT release to auditory complex on superior temporal gyrus.

10

What are the sensory receptors on the ear?

The inner hair cells of the scala media in the cochlea

11

Is conduction velocity positively of negatively associated with axon diameter?

Positively

12

What does NOT cause pain?

The over stimulation of receptors responsible for touch

13

What is the response of substance P being locally release?

Increased inflammatory response

14

What's the different between thermoreceptors and nociceptors?

Both detect heat but thermoreceptors are just for warm and mild temp and nociceptors work at extreme temperatures.

15

What is a contralateral pathway in pain?

Where the sensory impute cross at the level of the spinal cord and ascend on opposite sides.

16

What cells are involved in the direct pathways of light?

Photoreceptors, to bipolar cells, to retinal and ganglion cells.

17

What happens to NT transmission in the dark?

cGMP is converted to GMP, sodium channels close and no NT is released

18

What are the two parts is the retina divided into?

Nasal and temporal

19

How is full vision in the brain ensured?

The nasal signals cross at the optic chiasm and the temporal continues on its own side

20

What is another name for the primary visual cortex?

The striate cortex

21

Give the parts of the outer ear?

Pinna and auditory canal

22

Give the parts of the middle ear?

Tympanic membrane and ossicles

23

Give the parts of the inner ear?

Cochlea and semi circular canals

24

What are the three senses associated with the nose and mouth?

Olfactory, gustatory and chemical trigemnal

25

What contributes to taste?

Tongue, pharynx, palate, food odor and texture/appearance

26

What is the macula in the retina for?

Central vision

27

What is the optic disc of the retina?

The origin of blood vessels and where the optic nerve axons exit the eye- blind spot.

28

What do photoreceptors do?

Convert light energy into neural activity

29

What do bipolar cells create?

Direct pathways from photoreceptors to ganglion cells.

30

What is sound?

A series of changes in air pressure which form a wave