Sensory Evaluation of wine, Viticulture, and vilification Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sensory Evaluation of wine, Viticulture, and vilification Deck (131):
1

What are the basic tastes

1. sweet
2. salt
3. sour
4. bitter
5. Umani

2

what are the structural components of wine

85% water
12-14% alcohol
1% sugar
1/2% acid
less than 1% other components

3

what are the stages of wine tasting

1. appearance
2. nose
3. taste
4. conclusion

4

What should be looked for in the appearance of wine

1. clarity: brilliant, clear, transparent, cloudy, dull, hazy.
2. intensity: pale, medium, intense, pronounced
3. color: the hue
4. other observations: tartrate crystals, legs ullage

5

Horizontal tasting is what

tasting the same verities with the same vintages

6

Vertical tasting is what

tasting the same wine from different vintages

7

Aroma vs Bouquet traditional approach

aroma is the smell of the grape
bouquet is the developed or mature smell

8

aroma vs bouquet modern approach

aroma is a singular smell
bouquet is multiple smelss

9

Off odors in wine include what?

1. acetic acid = vinegar
2. hydrogen sulfide = rotten eggs
3. sulfur dioxide = burnt match
4. mercaptans, foul smelling chemical compounds = skunk
5. brettanomyces = mousy, barnyard wetness
6. TCA = corkiness wet cardboard wet socks

10

Aromas and flavors
1. almond

soave

11

Aromas and flavors
apricot

rhone wines

12

Aromas and flavors
asparagus

sancerre

13

Aromas and flavors
blackcurrant

cabernet

14

Aromas and flavors
bread

champagne

15

Aromas and flavors
butter

chardonnay

16

Aromas and flavors
cedar

bordeaux, cabernet

17

Aromas and flavors
cherry

pinot noir

18

Aromas and flavors
grapefruit

sauvignon blanc

19

Aromas and flavors
chocolate

full bodied reds

20

Aromas and flavors
leather

mature reds

21

Aromas and flavors
lemon

many young whites

22

Aromas and flavors
melon

new world chardonnay

23

Aromas and flavors
apple

many wines

24

Aromas and flavors
nutty

white burgundy

25

Aromas and flavors
oak

many wines

26

Aromas and flavors
Olive

Cabernets

27

Aromas and flavors
peach

sweet wines

28

Aromas and flavors
pepper

rhone wines

29

Aromas and flavors
raisins

sweet and fortified wines

30

Aromas and flavors
raspberry

red burgundy pinot noir

31

Aromas and flavors
smoke

full bodied red

32

Aromas and flavors
spice

phone tuscan reds

33

Aromas and flavors
toast

barrel wines

34

Aromas and flavors
vanilla

new oak barrels

35

Aromas and flavors
Chardonnay

Apple
melon
peach
butter
toast
vanilla

36

Aromas and flavors
Sauvgnon Blanc

cut grass
grapefruit
flint
smoke
flowers

37

Aromas and flavors
Gewurztaminer

lychee nuts
flowers
spice
ginger

38

Aromas and flavors
riesling

green apples
honey
minerals
petrol

39

Aromas and flavors
Cabernet

blakc berries
cassis
cedar
chocolate
leather
figs
plum
tar

40

Aromas and flavors
merlot

plum
black berries
cassis
chocolate
figs
herbs

41

Aromas and flavors
Pinot noir

cherries
raspberries
mushrooms
roses

42

Aromas and flavors
zinfandel

similar to cab but spicier
black pepper

43

Tasting terms
Astringent

mouth puckering

44

Aromas and flavors
austere

tough hard

45

Aromas and flavors
crisp

fresh positively

46

Aromas and flavors
dense

concentrated

47

Aromas and flavors
dried out

over the hill

48

Aromas and flavors
earthy

soil
gravel
minerally

49

Aromas and flavors
fat

high glycerol

50

Aromas and flavors
flabby

lacking acidity

51

Aromas and flavors
green

young and raw

52

Aromas and flavors
heavy

full bodied and alcoholic

53

Aromas and flavors
hot

too high in alcohol

54

Structural elements
soft

sugar + alcohol

55

Structural elements
hard

acid +tannin

56

Oenology

study and appreciation of wine which includes both viticulture and vilification

57

what is weather

weather is the natural short term (daily weekly and seasonal) condition of our environment

58

what is climate

is the long ted weather pattern of any given region

59

what is microclimate

it is the commonly used to describe the weather of a very localized area of grape production, such as Carneros or russian river

60

Types of Climate
tropical

very hot
sunny
humid
warm winters

61

Types of Climate
mediterranean

warm to hot
sunny summers
can be humid but little rain
mild wet winters

62

Types of Climate
maritime

climate influenced by body of water
moderate winters
average rainfall
warm to hot summer
narrow temperature range throughout the year

63

Types of Climate
continental

hot summer
cold winters
rain throughout the year
rapid temperature drop around harvest time
wide temperature range throughout the year

64

where is the ideal growth locations

between 30 and 50 latitude

65

Winklers heat summation system measures monthly average temperatures above 50 degrees when?

for the growing season from april through october

66

why is 50 degrees the magic number in HSS

growth starts at 50 degrees
nothing happens below 50 degrees

67

Winklers HSS
Region 1

best for dry table wines of light body example carneros less than 2500 deree days

68

Winklers HSS
region 2

the best for dry table wines of medium body (stags leap) 2500 to 3000 degree days

69

Winklers HSS
region 3

best for dry table wines of full body calistoga 3000 to 3500 degree days

70

Winklers HSS
region 4

best for fortified wines 3500 to 4000 days sacramento delta and lodi

71

Winklers HSS
region 5

best for table grapes and drying grapes the hottest aboive 4,000 days fresno bakersfield

72

hybrid

is a crossing of two different species of vine

73

crossing

is a new variety obtained by crossing two varieties of the same species

74

clone

is a successive propagation from a superior vine so as to create a new superior plant

75

Name a few trellising systems

1. cordon de royat
2. geneva double curtain
3. goblet
4. lyre
5. pergolas
6. scott henry
7. smart syson
8. single gout
9 double gout

76

Phylloxera Vastatrix

tiny insect attacks the roots of vinifera vines injecting them with poisonous saliva.

77

Pierces disease

is a bacterial disease that attacks the vascular system of plants
glassy winged sharp shooter

78

Terroir

combination of grape variety, soil climate and vineyard characteristics of a certain region that, together, produce a wine of a particular character

79

Classic Grape Varieties where is it from
chardonnay

burgundy and champagne

80

Classic Grape Varieties where is it from
sauvignon Blanc

Loire Valley (sancerre pouilly fume)

81

Classic Grape Varieties where is it from
semillion

bordeaux (sauternes)

82

Classic Grape Varieties where is it from
chenin blanc

loire valley (vouvray)

83

Classic Grape Varieties where is it from
riesling

Germany (rheingau mosel) and Alsace

84

Classic Grape Varieties where is it from
viognier

condrieu
rhone valley

85

Classic Grape Varieties where is it from
mocabeo

penedes
spain

86

Classic Grape Varieties where is it from
Gewurztraminer

alsace

87

Classic Grape Varieties
Cabernet Sauvignon

Medoc left bank

88

Classic Grape Varieties
Merlot

Pomerol
St emilion
right bank

89

Classic Grape Varieties
Pinot Noir

Burgundy
Champagne

90

Classic Grape Varieties
Syrah

Rhone Valley

91

Classic Grape Varieties
Pinotage

South Africa

92

Classic Grape Varieties
Nebbiolo

Piermonte

93

Classic Grape Varieties
sangiovese

Chianti

94

Classic Grape Varieties
Terpranillo

Rioja
Ribera del Duero

95

Classic Grape Varieties
Zinfandel

Croatia
California

96

Sauvignon Blanc

Range of styles
fresh
clean
fruity
refreshing acidity

97

Riesling

light to medium body
floral
fruity
dry or sweet
retains fresh balancing acidity

98

Gewürztraminer

highly pungent nose
lychee
rose petals
touch of cinnamon
usually low acidity
high alcohol when dry
new world tend to be sweet and fruity

99

Cabernet

Very small grapes
high ratio of skin to juice
medium to high acidity
high tannins
blackcurrant aromas
aging potential

100

pinot noir

difficult to grow
thin skinned
lightly pigmented
low tannins
floral
red berry
cherry

101

Zinfandel

From Croatia
high sugar = high alcohol
deeply colored
spicy
full bodied

102

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Chard

Burgundy and champagne

103

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Chenin Blanc

Anjou and Touranine

104

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Gewürztraminer, Pinot Gris

Alsace

105

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Johannisberg Riesling

Northern Germany
Alsace

106

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Palomino

Xerez

107

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Sauvignon Blanc

Sancerre
Pouilly-Fume

108

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Semillon Blend with SB

Sauternes

109

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Viognier

Condrieu

110

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Nebbiolo

Piemonte

111

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Sangiovese

Chianti

112

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Sangiovese Grosso

Montalcino

113

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Syrah

Rhone Valley

114

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Pinot Noir

Burgundy and Champagne

115

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Terpranillo

Rioja

116

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Cabernet Sauvignon

Medoc Left Bank

117

where does the grape variety come from in the classic regions
Merlot

Pomerol Right bank

118

What are the four basic categories of wine?

Still Wine
Sparkling Wine
Fortified Wine
Aromatized

119

What is the formula for fermentation

sugar + yeast
=
Alcohol +co2+ Heat

120

When do you harvest the grapes

balance of sugar and acid

121

How can you figure out the brix level with the Alcohol?

Degree brix is equal to roughly 2x the potential alcohol
% alcohol 11.3 brix +21.5

122

Fermentation flow chart
White Grapes

1. harvest
2. crushing and destemming
3. adjust the must
4. press
5. alcoholic fermentation
6. mlf
7. less contact
8. racking
9. barrel aging
10. blending
11. stabilization
12. filtration
13. bottling

123

Fermentation flow chart
Red grapes

1.harvest
2. crushing and destemming
3. adjust the must
4. alcoholic fermentation
5. mlf
6. extended maceration
7. press
8. barrel aging
9. racking
10 blending
11. stabilization
12. filtration
13 bottling

124

Carbonic maceration

accomplished with out yeast or crushing the grapes
most common but not exclusive to the beaujolais region of france

125

What is must

Grape skins, solids and juice

126

what does pomace do?

residual of pressing

127

what is racking

method of clarification

128

what is extended maceration

method of extracting color, flavor and tannins from the grape skins in the production of red wine

129

what is chaptalization

addition of sugar to the must in order to increase resultant alcohol

130

what is fining

method of clarification and stabilization

131

what is terroir

combination f grape variety, soil climate and vineyard characteristics of a certain region that together produce a wine of particular character