Flashcards in Sensory Receptors Deck (30):
________ are receptors responsible for touch and pressure.
Free nerve endings
________ are receptors responsible for fast vibration.
________ are receptors responsible for pressure and joint rotation.
Ruffini’s end organ
________ are receptors responsible for touch, slow vibration.
________ are receptors responsible for muscle stretch and load.
Golgi tendon apparatus
The body knows when a sensory receptor is receiving more or less stimulation by ________.
The frequency of action potentials
With prolonged stimulation, the frequency of action potentials ________.
________ are slow adaptive receptors in order to give the brain constant information.
Golgi tendon apparatus’
________ are rapidly adaptive receptors and give information about change as it happens.
What are the two ways intensity can be increased?
Spatial summation and temporal summation
Fast, sharp pain from mechanical or heat stimuli travels on ________ rapidly.
Slow, chronic pain from chemical, mechanical, or thermal stimuli travels on ________ slowly.
Aδ fibers use ________ as their neurotransmitter and terminate in the ________.
Glutamate, lamina marginalia of the dorsal horns
Aδ fibers alone can localize within ________, but coupled with ________ receptors, the pain can be nearly exactly localized.
10 cm, tactile
C fibers use ________ and glutamate as their neurotransmitters and terminate in the ________.
Substance P, substantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horns
Glutamate acts ________ and last for ________.
Instantaneously, a few milliseconds
Substance P is released ________ and builds up in concentration over ________.
Muscle spindles are located in the ________ of the muscle and give info about muscle ________ and ________.
Belly, length, rate of change of length
Golgi tendon organs are located in muscle ________ and give info about ________ and ________.
Tendons, tendon tension, rate of change of tendon tension
Muscle spindles have few or lack ________.
Actin or myosin filaments
The ends of muscle spindles contract via ________ and the mid portion contains ________.
Gamma motor nerve fibers, sensory fibers
Sensory fibers are composed of two types. ________ are activated in slow and rapid lengthening of muscle spindle fibers. ________ are activated only during slow lengthening.
Primary endings (annulospiral), secondary endings
Muscle stretch reflexes are initiated by a ________.
Sudden stretch of muscle spindle.
The pathway for muscle stretch reflexes is a ________ pathway.
The Golgi tendon reflex occurs when ________.
Stress on a tendon becomes too great
The higher a stimulation risers above a threshold, the ________ the frequency of action potentials.
Stimulation of the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus has a strong ________ effect on the entire brain.
In the ALS, the primary neuron synapses in the ________, the secondary neuron synapses in the ________ and the tertiary neuron synapses in the ________.
Dorsal horn, thalamus, cortex
The ________ acts via the periaqueductal gray, periventricular areas, raphe magnus nucleus, and nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis.