Flashcards in Sepsis Deck (19):
The presence of a microbe in the human body that does not cause infection or a specific immune response
The occurrence of inflammation due to the presence of a microbe
The presence of a viable bacteria in the blood
SIRS plus a documented infection site
i.e. positive cultures from that site
What does SIRS stand for?
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
A patient is classed as having SIRS if they have 2 or more of certain criteria. List these potential criteria.
Temperature >/= 38C or 100bpm
Respiration > 20/min
Leukocyte count > 16000/mm3, 10% immature cells
Define severe sepsis.
Sepsis associated with organ dysfunction, hypo perfusion abnormalities or hypotension
Give some examples of hypo perfusion abnormalities.
Acute alteration in mental status
Define septic shock.
Sepsis induced hypotension despite fluid resuscitation plus hypo perfusion abnormalities
Name some risk factors associated with sepsis.
Extremes of age
Name some common pathogens associated with the infection element of sepsis.
Gram negative bacilli
List the stages of pathophysiology.
Host defence mechanism activation
Neutrophil & monocyte influx
Release of infalmmatory mediators
EITHER vasodilation OR diffuse endothelial dysfunction leading to increased epithelial permeability OR activation of coagulation
List some symptoms and signs of sepsis.
Prolonged capillary refill
Warm or cool peripheries
Abnormal skin temperature
How does diagnosis of sepsis vary?
According to type of infection and SIRS present
Serological blood tests
List the SEPSIS SIX.
Administer high flow OXYGEN
Take BLOOD cultures
Give BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS
Give IV fluid challenges
Measure SERUM LACTATE & HAEMOGLOBIN
Measure accurate hourly URINE OUTPUT
(Potentially request imaging)
When should you carry out the sepsis six?
BEFORE diagnosis if sepsis is expected
Why are asplenic patients more at risk of contracting sepsis?
The spleen is a very important organ in immune response
What is the function of cytokines?
To release a broad spectrum of inflammatory mediators contributing to responses such as vasodilation and the coagulation cascade