Session 11 - Symptoms And Signs Of Respiratory Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 11 - Symptoms And Signs Of Respiratory Disease Deck (37)
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1

What are the six cardinal symptoms of respiratory disease?

Breathlessness (dyspnoea)
Cough
Chest pain
Wheeze/stridor
Sputum
Haemoptysis

2

How might patients suffering from bronchoconstriction describe their breathlessness?

‘Chest tightness’
‘Increased effort of breathing’
‘Air hunger’

3

How might patients suffering from COPD describe their breathlessness?

‘Cannot take a full breath’
‘Unsatisfying breathing’

4

How might patients suffering from Herat failure describe their breathlessness?

‘Air hunger’
‘Suffocation’

5

Give some common causes of dyspnoea.

Asthma
COPD
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Myocardial dysfunction
Anaemia
Obesity
Deconditioning

6

What are some causes of instantaneous breathlessness?

Pulmonary embolism
Pneumothorax

7

What are some causes of acute breathlessness (onset in minutes to hours)?

Asthma
Pulmonary embolism
Pneumonia
Left ventricular failure/myocardial infarction
Hyperventilation syndrome

8

What are some causes of gradual onset (days) breathlessness?

Lobar collapse (e.g. lung cancer)
Pleural effusion

9

What are some causes of chronic onset (months to years) breathlessness?

COPD
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Bronchiectasis

10

What are the common causes of cough?

Respiratory
- acute infection
- chronic infection
- nasal/sinus disease
- airways disease
- parenchyma disease
- irritant
- pleural disease
Cardiovascular
- left ventricular failure
Gastrointestinal
- gastro-oesophageal reflux
Drugs
- ACE inhibitors, inhaled drugs

11

Give some causes of pleuritic chest pain.

Viral/bacterial pleurisy
Pulmonary embolism/infarction
Pneumothorax
Pericarditis

12

Give some causes of chest wall pain.

Costochondritis
Rib fracture
Spinal osteoarthritis
Herpes Zoster (shingles)

13

What is wheeze?

A noisy musical sound produced by turbulent flow through narrow small airways. It is mostly expiratory.

14

Wheeze is seen commonly in what conditions?

Asthma
COPD
Bronchiolitis
Sometimes seen in LVF

15

What is stridor?

A course inspiratory wheeze.

16

What are the common causes of stridor?

Extrathoracic upper airways obstruction:
- epiglottis
- croup
- diptheria
- aspirated foreign bodies
- extrinsic compression (e.g. large goitre)

17

What are some possible causes of increased sputum?

Smoking/smoke pollution
COPD
Acute viral or bacterial bronchitis
Pneumonia
Bronchiectasis
Lung abscess
Acute asthma
Lung cancer
LVF

18

What is the most common cause of haemoptysis?

Infection:
- pneumonia
- TB
- bronchiectasis
- bronchitis

19

Other than infection, what possible causes are there for haemoptysis?

Lung cancer
Pulmonary embolism
Anticoagulation
LVF

20

What are the causes of central cyanosis?

Congenital heart disease - right to left shunt
Severe respiratory disease - COPD, severe pneumonia, severe bronchospasm (including acute asthma)

21

What are the respiratory causes of clubbing?

Lung cancer
Bronchiectasis, including CF
Empyema
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

22

What are the accessory inspiratory muscles?

Sternocleidomastoid
Latissimus dorsi
Scalene muscles
Pectoralis minor
Serratus anterior

23

What are the primary inspiratory muscles?

External intercostal muscles
Diaphragm

24

What are the accessory expiratory muscles?

Internal intercostal muscles
Transversus thoracis
External oblique
Rectus abdominis
Internal oblique

25

Barrel chest is seen in what condition?

Emphysema

26

Why does barrel chest occur in emphysema?

Loss of elastin in the lungs allows the chest wall to expand

27

Why do COPD patients do pursed lip breathing?

Stops them exhaling too much air meaning the alveoli don’t get too small, making it easier to take the next breath.

28

The position of the trachea is used to detect what?

Mediastinal displacement

29

What conditions would causes tracheal deviation away from the affected side?

Tension pneumothorax
Large plural effusion

30

What conditions would cause tracheal deviation towards the affected side?

Lung or lobar collapse
Pulmonary fibrosis, particularly of the upper lobe