Session 9 (1) - Normal structure of Pituitary and Adrenal Glands Flashcards Preview

Semester 1 - Metabolism > Session 9 (1) - Normal structure of Pituitary and Adrenal Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 9 (1) - Normal structure of Pituitary and Adrenal Glands Deck (40):
1

Name 6 hormones produced from pituitatry, and the cells they stem from

TSH is produced in the Thyrotrophs
ACTH produced in the Corticotrophs
Growth hormone produced in the Somatotrophs (largest number of cells)
LH and FSH are produced in the Gonadotrophs
Prolactin is produced in the Lactotrophs

2

Where is the pituitary located?

Base of the brain suspended from the hypothalamus by a stalk

3

How do releasing factors travel from hypothalamus to pituitary gland?

Via hypohyseal portal system, a specialised series of blood vessels.

4

List the three types of hormones released from adrenal cortex and give examples of each

Mineralocorticoids
E.g. Aldosterone (C21 steroid)

Glucocorticoids
E.g. Cortisol and Corticosterone (C21 steroids) major steroids produced

Androgens

5

Give two parts of adrenal gland

Cortex and Medulla

6

What is the name for the three sections of the adrenal cortex, and what does each secrete?

Zona Glomerulosa --> Mineralocorticoids
E.g. Aldosterone (C21 steroid)
Zona Fasciculata --> Glucocorticoids
E.g. Cortisol and Corticosterone (C21 steroids) major steroids produced
Zona Reticularis --> Androgens

7

What is released from medulla?

Adrenaline

8

What is the function of TSH?

Stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones from thyroid

9

What is the function of growth hormone?

Affects metabolism, increasing muscle mass

10

What are the functions of LH and FSH?

Affects ovary and testis function

11

What is the function of prolactin?

Affects breast and milk development

12

What is the function of aldosterone?

Stimulates Na+ reabsorption in the kidney in exchange for K+ (or H+).

13

What does over secretion of aldosterone cause?

increases Na+ and water retention and loss of K+ causing hypertension and muscle weakness.

14

What does undersecretion of aldosterone cause?

Undersecretion decreases Na+ and water retention, increases K+. Causes hypotension.

15

What are the functions of androgens?

Stimulate growth and development of male genital tract and male secondary sexual characteristics. Anabolic.

16

Give an example of an androgen

Testosterone

17

What effect does over secretion of androgens have on females?

Hair growth, deepening voice, menstrual problems and acne.

18

What are the functions of Oestrogen?

Stimulate growth and development of female genital tract and female secondary sexual characteristics. Weakly anabolic.
(broad hips, accumulation of fat in breasts, body hair distribution)

19

How do steroids differ in structure from each other?

Number of C atoms
Presence of functional groups
Distribution of C=C bonds

20

Give two distinctive features of steroid hormones

Lipophillic
Synthesised from Cholesterol via progesterone

21

What is CRF secreted in response to, and where is it secreted from?

Physical (temperature, pain), chemical (hypoglycaemia) and emotional stressors.
Secreted from hypothalamus.

22

How is CRF secretion inhibited?

Negative feedback from glucocorticoids

23

What does CRF do?

Causes secretion of ACTH from anterior pituitary

24

What is the precursor for ACTH?

POMC

25

What does post translation processing of POMC produce?

a-melanocyte stimulating hormone
ACTH
B endorphins

26

What does ACTH cause pigmentation in body when present in large amounts?

MSH sequence contained with ACTH sequence, give ACTH some MSH like activity when in excess.

27

How does ACTH production relate to cortisol secretion rhythmn?

Secreted in pulses following circardian rhythmn

28

Where does ACTH bind and how? What does binding do?

Where
Zona fasiculata
Zona reticularis

How
Hydrophillic, interacts with high affinity receptors on cell surface.

Binding stimulates cholesterol esterase, which produces cholesterol from which cortisol produced.

29

What is the name of the receptor ACTH binds to?

Melanocortin receptor

30

What does over secretion of ACTH cause?

Pigmentation
Over-production of cortisol

31

What does under secretion of ACTH cause?

Symptoms related to lack of glucocorticoids

32

How is cortisol transported in plasma and why?

Bound to plasma proteins as it is lipophillic

33

Describe mechanism of action for cortisol on target cells

Cortisol can cross plasma membranes and bind to cytoplasmic receptors
The hormone/receptor complex enters nucleus and interacts with specific regions of DNA
This interaction changes rate of transcription of certain genes

34

Describe the functions of cortisol

1) Increase proteolysis (decreased amino acid uptake + protein synthesis)
2) Hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
3) Increased lipolysis in adipose tissue (HIGH cortisol results in lipogenesis)
4) Decreased peripheral uptake of glucose (ANTI-INSULIN)

35

How is adrenaline synthesised?

Tyrosine --> Dopamine --> Adrenaline

36

What type of hormone is adrenaline?

Amino acid derivative

37

Give four effects of adrenaline

- Cardiovascular system (increased cardiac output, increased blood supply to muscle)
- CNS (Increased mental alertness)
- Carb metabolism (increased glycogenolysis)
- Lipid metabolism (increased lipoysis in adipose tissue)

38

What is adrenaline secreted in response to?

Fright, fight or flight - stress situations

39

What can cause overproduction of adrenaline?

Tumour (phaechromocytoma) in adrenal medulla

40

What can overproduction of adrenaline cause?

Hypertensison, anxiety, palpitations, sweating and glucose intolerance