Set 11 Carbs and Lipids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Set 11 Carbs and Lipids Deck (55):
1

How many kcal/g in carbs?

4

2

What % of diet should come from carbs?

50-55%

3

what is a ketone?

multiple hydroxyl groups

4

Sugars with one or two single sugars:

simple carbs

5

What is sorbitol?

surar alcohol from glucose

6

How are carbohydrates oxidized?

citric acid cycle

7

How are excess carbs stored?

glycogen or FA stored as triglycerides in adipose

8

What raises blood glucose levels?

glucagon, epinepherine, glucocorticoids, thyroxine, and growth hormone

9

What lowers blood glucose levels?

insulin

10

What are the catabolic pathways for carbs?

glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation "the Big 4"

11

What are the two forms of carbs?

starch and sugars

12

What kind of bonds are found in carbs?

glycosidic

13

Which is digestible, alpha or beta?

alpha

14

What bond is straight chain?

4-Jan

15

Which bond is branched?

6-Jan

16

What monosacs have 6 carbons?

glucose and fructose

17

What monosacs have 5 carbons?

ribose

18

What carbs have a1-4 bonds?

maltose, amylose, amylopectin*, and glycogen* (*-also have a1-6)

19

What makes maltose?

glucose + glucose

20

What makes lactose?

glucose + galactose

21

What makes sucrose?

glucose + fructose

22

What bond is found in cellulose?

b1-4

23

What is cellulose?

non-digestible fiber found in plants

24

What is the best source for amylose?

potatoes

25

Where is glycogen stored?

liver and muscles

26

What is the difference between amylopectin and glycogen?

amylopectin has less frequent, but longer branches.

27

What do non-cellulose polysaccharides do?

absorb water, swell, slow emptying of food, bind bile acids to cholesterol

28

What is lignin?

only non-carb dietary fiber, from the woody part of a plant

29

How are carbs broken down in the mouth?

ptyalin breaks starch->dextrin->maltose

30

Are carbs digested in the stomach?

no

31

Where are carbs broken down?

little in mouth, mostly in SI

32

What is oxidation?

losing electrons

33

What is reduction?

gaining electrons

34

How many kcal/g in lipids?

9

35

What bond is between glycerol and fatty acids?

ester bonds

36

What is a saturated fatty acid?

no double bonds, solid at room temp

37

What are sources of saturated fatty acids?

lard, butter, coconut and palm oil

38

What is a monounsaturated fatty acid?

one C=C, liquid at room temp

39

What are sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?

olive oil, olives, peanuts, peanut oil, canola oil, almonds, pecans, and avocado

40

What is a polyunsaturated fatty acid?

more than one C=C, liquid at room temp

41

What are sources of polyunsaturated fatty acid?

sunflower oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, linoleic and ALA

42

What are the essential fatty acids?

linoleic and linolenic

43

When does arachidonic acid become essential?

when linoleic is absent from the diet

44

What is the numbering for arachodonic acid?

20:04

45

What is the numbering for linolenic acid?

18:03

46

What is the numbering for linoleic acid?

18:02

47

What is the numbering for EPA?

20:05

48

What is a triglyceride?

3 FAs + glycerol

49

What is a phospholipid?

2 FAs + glycerol + phosphate derivative

50

Where are phospholipids found?

all cell membranes

51

What does cholesterol require?

ATP, Mg, and NADPH

52

What is cholesterol used for?

make cell membranes, bile salts, and steroid hormones

53

What does the liver do with cholesterol?

coverts it to bile, bile emulsifies fat

54

What do we call a mixture of fat and bile?

micelle

55

What are the precursor molecules for cholesterol?

mevalonate, acetyl CoA, Squalene, and HMG CoA (MASH)