Flashcards in Set 13 AA, pro and pep, Nucleic Acids Pg 15-16 Deck (58):
What are the essential amino acids?
PVT TIM HALL Phenylalanine, valine, tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, arginine, leucine, and lycine
What are the semi-essential AAs?
histidine and argadine
Which AAs have an aromatic ring?
Phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine
What are the Basic (pH) AAs?
hisitidine, arginine, and lysine (HAL is a basic guy)
What are the neutral AAs?
serine, threonine, asparagine, and glutamine (STAG)
What are the sulfur containing AAs?
methionine and cysteine
What AAs are not glucogenic?
leucine and lysine
What are the branch chain AAs?
leucine, isoleucine, and valine
What are the acidic AAs?
glutamate and aspartate
What are the aliphatic "chain" AAs?
(from less to more hydrophilic) glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine
What are food sources of AAs?
meats, fish, eggs, dairy, PB, and grains
Where are AAs digested?
stomoach and SI
What breaks down AAs in the stomach?
pepsin, HCL, and rennin (infants and children only)
What breaks down AAs in the SI?
trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, dipeptidase
What is the route of AAs metabolism?
transamination then oxidative deamination
What is removed from AA metabolism, where is it taken and what takes it there?
ammonia, taken to the urea cycle by glutamate
What are the two possibilities to the carbon skeletons left after AA metabolism?
glucogenic or ketogenic
What 3 AAs donate nitrogen form purines and pyrimidines?
glutamine, aspertate, and asparagine
What 6 AAs is muscle able to oxidize?
Glutamate, aspartate, leucine, valine, isoleucine, and asparagine (my GAL VIA)
What are the other names for the lactic acid cycle?
glucose-alanine cycle or cori cycle
What does the glucose-alanine cycle make?
ammonia from amino acids and lactate from glucose (during exercise)
What does the liver do during the glucose-alanine cycle?
converts alanine back into lactate and ammonia
Where does the ammonia and lactate from the glucose-alanina cycle go?
ammonia becomes urea, lactate becomes glucose through the process of gluconeogenesis are returns to the muscle
What is the function of the urea cycle?
to remove ammonia from the body
What is the bond between amino acids?
What is the primary structure of an AA?
number and sequence of amino acids which determines protein structure
What is the secondary structure for amino acids?
alpha helix and beta bend(pleated sheet)
What is the tertiary structure of an AA?
maximally folded for function
What is quaternary structure of an AA?
more than one chain
What is the sugar in DNA?
What is the sugar in RNA?
What are the purines?
adenine and guanine (All Gems are PURe)
What are the pyrimidines?
uracil (RNA), thymine (DNA) and cytosine (CUT the PY)
If the phosphate is removed from a nucleotide it is called a:
What are the bonds in nucleotides?
What is the bonds between base pairs?
What are the base pairs?
A/T (D,) A/U (R), G/C
Where does DNA replication take place?
What enzyme unwinds DNA?
What enzyme makes new DNA from parent DNA?
What is mitosis in DNA replication?
splitting the doubled 92 chromose DNA into two daughter strands
What direction does RNA synthesis occur?
5' to 3'
Where does RNA transcription occur?
What enzyme makes RNA transcription go?
RNA polymerase binds to promoter and makes RNA primer strand
How many bases are read at a time in RNA synthesis?
When does RNA synthesis end?
when it hits the termination sequence, RNA polymerase and primer strand fall off
What are the three types of RNA?
messenger, ribosomal, and transfer
What is the function of messenger RNA?
holds the infromation for AA sequence
What is the function of ribosomal RNA?
main component of the ribosomal until which moves mRNA along
What is the function of transfer RNA?
jumps on and off the rRNA, carrying the AA with it
What is the start codon?
What are the stop codons?
UAA, UAG, UGA
What is the order of events to get a protein?
DNA to mRNA, where rRNA and tRNA do their jobs, then to protein
Glycogenic AA carbon skeletons will form what to make what?
Pyruvate or oxaloacetate to make glucose
Ketogenic AA carbon skeletons will form what to make what?
Form acetyl CoA or Acetoacetyl CoA to make ketones
What is the enzyme responsible for helping tRNA form a peptide bond with the AA on the tRNA "next door"