Set 13 AA, pro and pep, Nucleic Acids Pg 15-16 Flashcards Preview

NBCE Part 1 > Set 13 AA, pro and pep, Nucleic Acids Pg 15-16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Set 13 AA, pro and pep, Nucleic Acids Pg 15-16 Deck (58):
1

What are the essential amino acids?

PVT TIM HALL Phenylalanine, valine, tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, arginine, leucine, and lycine

2

What are the semi-essential AAs?

histidine and argadine

3

Which AAs have an aromatic ring?

Phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine

4

What are the Basic (pH) AAs?

hisitidine, arginine, and lysine (HAL is a basic guy)

5

What are the neutral AAs?

serine, threonine, asparagine, and glutamine (STAG)

6

What are the sulfur containing AAs?

methionine and cysteine

7

What AAs are not glucogenic?

leucine and lysine

8

What are the branch chain AAs?

leucine, isoleucine, and valine

9

What are the acidic AAs?

glutamate and aspartate

10

What are the aliphatic "chain" AAs?

(from less to more hydrophilic) glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine

11

What are food sources of AAs?

meats, fish, eggs, dairy, PB, and grains

12

Where are AAs digested?

stomoach and SI

13

What breaks down AAs in the stomach?

pepsin, HCL, and rennin (infants and children only)

14

What breaks down AAs in the SI?

trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, dipeptidase

15

What is the route of AAs metabolism?

transamination then oxidative deamination

16

What is removed from AA metabolism, where is it taken and what takes it there?

ammonia, taken to the urea cycle by glutamate

17

What are the two possibilities to the carbon skeletons left after AA metabolism?

glucogenic or ketogenic

18

What 3 AAs donate nitrogen form purines and pyrimidines?

glutamine, aspertate, and asparagine

19

What 6 AAs is muscle able to oxidize?

Glutamate, aspartate, leucine, valine, isoleucine, and asparagine (my GAL VIA)

20

What are the other names for the lactic acid cycle?

glucose-alanine cycle or cori cycle

21

What does the glucose-alanine cycle make?

ammonia from amino acids and lactate from glucose (during exercise)

22

Alanine-ammonia=?

lactate

23

What does the liver do during the glucose-alanine cycle?

converts alanine back into lactate and ammonia

24

Where does the ammonia and lactate from the glucose-alanina cycle go?

ammonia becomes urea, lactate becomes glucose through the process of gluconeogenesis are returns to the muscle

25

What is the function of the urea cycle?

to remove ammonia from the body

26

What is the bond between amino acids?

peptide bond

27

What is the primary structure of an AA?

number and sequence of amino acids which determines protein structure

28

What is the secondary structure for amino acids?

alpha helix and beta bend(pleated sheet)

29

What is the tertiary structure of an AA?

maximally folded for function

30

What is quaternary structure of an AA?

more than one chain

31

What is the sugar in DNA?

deoxyribose

32

What is the sugar in RNA?

ribose

33

What are the purines?

adenine and guanine (All Gems are PURe)

34

What are the pyrimidines?

uracil (RNA), thymine (DNA) and cytosine (CUT the PY)

35

If the phosphate is removed from a nucleotide it is called a:

nucleoside

36

What are the bonds in nucleotides?

phosphodiester bonds

37

What is the bonds between base pairs?

hydrogen bonds

38

What are the base pairs?

A/T (D,) A/U (R), G/C

39

Where does DNA replication take place?

nucleus

40

What enzyme unwinds DNA?

topoisomerase (helicase)

41

What enzyme makes new DNA from parent DNA?

DNA polymerase

42

What is mitosis in DNA replication?

splitting the doubled 92 chromose DNA into two daughter strands

43

What direction does RNA synthesis occur?

5' to 3'

44

Where does RNA transcription occur?

nucleolus

45

What enzyme makes RNA transcription go?

RNA polymerase binds to promoter and makes RNA primer strand

46

How many bases are read at a time in RNA synthesis?

3

47

When does RNA synthesis end?

when it hits the termination sequence, RNA polymerase and primer strand fall off

48

What are the three types of RNA?

messenger, ribosomal, and transfer

49

What is the function of messenger RNA?

holds the infromation for AA sequence

50

What is the function of ribosomal RNA?

main component of the ribosomal until which moves mRNA along

51

What is the function of transfer RNA?

jumps on and off the rRNA, carrying the AA with it

52

What is the start codon?

AUG

53

What are the stop codons?

UAA, UAG, UGA

54

What is the order of events to get a protein?

DNA to mRNA, where rRNA and tRNA do their jobs, then to protein

55

Glycogenic AA carbon skeletons will form what to make what?

Pyruvate or oxaloacetate to make glucose

56

Ketogenic AA carbon skeletons will form what to make what?

Form acetyl CoA or Acetoacetyl CoA to make ketones

57

What is the enzyme responsible for helping tRNA form a peptide bond with the AA on the tRNA "next door"

Peptidyl transferase

58

What Enzyme allows the AA to be attached to the tRNA

aminoacyl-tRNA synthase