Flashcards in Set 14 Chemistry Cycles Deck (63):
What does 1 turn of glycolysis make?
2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH
What stimulates glycolysis?
AMP and insulin
What inhibits glycolysis?
citrate, ketone bodies, free FAs, ATP, cAMP, and low pH
Where does glycolysis and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway occur?
What are the substrates for gluconeogenesis?
lactate, glycerol, glucogenic AAs
What is the product of gluconeogenesis?
What stimulates gluconeogenesis?
cortisol, epinepherine, norepinepherine, ATP, and glucagon (slight)
What inhibits gluconeogenesis?
insulin, AMP, ADP, high blood glucose
Where does gluconeogenesis take place?
cytoplasm and mitochondria of the liver
What is the substrate for glycogenesis?
UDP-glucose (one pentose and one glucose)
What is the product of glycogenesis?
What stimulates glycogenesis?
What inhibits glycogenesis?
glucagon and epinepherine (less of an effect)
Where do glycogenesis and glycogenolysis take place?
cytoplasm of the liver and muscle
What is the product of glycogenolysis?
glucose 1 phosphate
What stimulates glycogenolysis?
cortisol, epinepherine, norepinepherine, and glucagon
What inhibits glycogenolysis?
What is the substrate of lipogenesis?
What stimulates lipogenesis?
What inhibits lipogenesis?
epinepherine and glucagon
Where do lipogenesis, lipolysis, and cholesterol synthesis take place?
What is the product of lipolysis?
What stimulates lipolysis?
epinepherine, norepinepherine, glucagon, GH, and caffiene
What inhibits lipolysis?
What stimulates cholesterol synthesis?
What inhibits cholesterol synthesis?
presence of cholesterol
What is the product of the pentose phosphate pathway?
5-C sugar: ribulose-5-phosphate
What stimulates the pentose phosphate pathway?
NADP, build new cells and fat
What inhibits the pentose phosphate pathway?
NADPH, ribose, AMP, and ADP
What is the opposite of insulin?(in regards to effect)
epinepherine and glucagon
What is the pre-Kreb's step?
Oxidative decarboxylation of Pyruvate -> acetyl CoA
What does the pre-Kreb step require?
Thiamine pyrophosphate / FAD / CoA / Lipoic Acid / NAD (the five coenzymes love nutrition
What are the products of the pre-Kreb step?
Acetyl CoA, NADH, and Co2
What are the other names for the Kreb's cycle?
citric acid cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle
Where does the Kreb's cycle take place?
Is Kreb's aerobic or anaerobic?
What are the products for one turn of the Kreb's cycle?
2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 GTP/ATP
How many total ATPs do we get from Kreb's?
How many total ATPs do we get from Glycerol-3-phosphate shunt?
How many total ATPs do we get from glycolysis?
How many total ATPs do we get?
36 (if not available, choose 38)
What are the antioxidants?
ACE, selenium and zinc & chromium
What is the function of antioxidants?
decrease free radicals, thus reducing cancer cell production
What is the function of Vitamin E?
synergystic with selenium
What is selenium a cofactor for?
What do zinc and chromium help decrease?
oxidative stress with type II diabetes
Where is lutein found?
green leafy veggies (good for your eyes)
Where is lycopene found?
tomatoes, watermelons, and papayas
What can interfere with the ETC?
cyanide poisoning and carbon monoxide
Rice and wheat are missing which AA?
Legumes are missing which AA?
Corn is missing which AAs?
lysine and tryptophan
What are enantiomers?
What are stereoisomers?
atoms in the same order, differ in precise orientation
What are epimers?
sugar differing in configuration at a single asymmetric center
How do we identify bile salts?
they end in cholic acid or cholate
What does too much uric acid cause?
What is the isoelectric point
When the charge of AA or protein are neutral
In glycolysis what is the allosteric enzyme?
(In muscles its Hexokinase)
ETC is also known as what
Cytochrome series and respiratory chain
What is the final electron acceptor in the ETC
Oxygen to form water
Where is the ETC located
In the inner fold of the inner mitochondrial membrane