Flashcards in Set 2 Deck (51):
What are the two parts of the cerebral cortex?
neocortex and allocortex
What % of the cerebral cortex is made of the neocrotex?
What is found in the neocortex?
six cerebral cortex laminae (mostly synaptic activity)
What is the diencephalon mostly formed by?
What is the function of the diencephalon?
relay for cortex, processes sensory info, sleep, consciousness, and a motor relay
What is the function of the basal ganglia?
postural adjustments, steadying voluntary movements, and enkephalins
What do striatal lesions of the basal ganglia cause?
tremors (ex: Parkinson's, Hunington's chorea, and ballism)
What is included in the basal ganglia?
corpus striatum, amygaloid nucleus, and claustrum
What is the brainstem made up of?
medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
What is the brainstem conduit for?
ascending and descending tracts
Where are the reflex centers for respiration, cardiovascular, and consciousness located?
What CN nuclei are found in the brainstem?
CN III - XII
What does CSF taste like?
What are the meninges from inside out?
pia, arachnoid, dura (PAD)
What space is a spinal tap accessing?
What is the innermost layer of the neural tube made up of?
What produces CSF?
Where is CSF resorbed?
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
What is the function of dorsal nerve roots?
What is the function of ventral nerve roots?
Where does the spinal cord terminate?
What do we call the end of the spinal cord?
What is the cauda equina?
roots for lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves through the lumbar cistern
What is the midbrain composed of?
tectum and peduncles
What is the function of the cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius?
CSF exchange between 3rd and 4th ventricles
What makes up the cerebral peduncles?
substansia nigra, tegmentum, crus cerebri, and CN III and IV nuclei
What is the function of the substansia nigra?
dopamine created from tyrosine and melanin is the by-product (causing dark color)
What fibers are included in the crus cerebri?
corticospinal, corticopontine, corticobulbar, and corticomesencaphalic (eye movement)
What is the function of the cerebellum?
integration of "momentary" static muscle contraction, joint tension, visual and auditory input regarding equilibrium
Where is the vermis found?
Where is the paleocerebellar cerebellum found?
What is the function of the paleocerebellar cerebellum?
general muscle tone
Where is the neocerebellar cerebellum found?
What is the function of the neocerebellar cerebellum?
coordination of skilled movements
What is the function of the archicerebellar cerebellum?
What is another name for the archicerebellar cerebellum?
What is another name for the white matter of the cerebellum?
What fibers are found in the corpus medullare?
afferent, efferent, commissural, and association fibers
What types of neurons are found in the gray matter of the cerebellum?
purkinje, golgi II, stellate, basket, and granular
What is the blood supply to the cerebellum?
branches of the vertebral and basilar arteries
What are the cerebellar nuclei from medial to lateral and small to large?
fastigial, globus, emboliform, and dentate (FGED, flowers grow every day)
What is the function of the thalamus?
crude sensation and integrations "relay center"
What is the function of the cortex?
conscious interpretation and movement
What is the main pathway between the thalamus and cortex?
through the internal capsule and corona radiata
The postcentral gyrus is the primary __________ cortex
The precentral gyrus is the primary __________ cortex
What are the descending tracts?
lateral corticospinal and anterior corticospinal, rubrospinal, vestibulospinal, tectospinal, Reticulospinal (pontine & medullary)
What are the ascending tracts?
posterior columns (Fasciculus and gracilis), posterior & anterior horns, dorsal & ventral spinocerebellar, lateral & and ventral spinothalamic , spinotectal, spinoreticular
What will an upper motor neuron lesion cause?
+deep tendon reflex, +muscle tone, +pathlogical reflex (Babinski), spasticity, hypertrophy, clonus, -superficial reflexes (bilateral)