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Flashcards in Set 3 Deck (51):
1

What is the function of the corticospinal (lateral and anterior) tracts?

precise and skilled voluntary movement (threading a needle or writing)

2

What is the function of the reticulospinal (pontine and medullary) tracts?

inhibit or facilitate voluntary movement

3

What are the neurons of the corticospinal (lateral and anterior) tracts?

internuncial neurons or alpha motor neurons

4

What are the neurons of the reticulospinal (pontine and medullary) tracts?

alpha and gamma motor neurons

5

Where do the corticospinal tracts cross?

most cross at decussation of pyramids

6

What is the function of the tectospinal tract?

reflex postural movement to visual stimuli

7

What are the neurons of the tectospinal tract?

alpha and gamma neurons

8

What is the function of the rubrospinal tract?

facilitates flexors and inhibits extensors

9

What are the neurons of the rubrospinal tract?

alpha and gamma neurons

10

What information does the rubrospinal tract receive?

cerebral and cerebellar

11

What is the function of the vestibulospinal tract?

facilitates extensors and inhibits flexors

12

What are the neurons of the vestibulospinal tract?

alpha and gamma motor neurons

13

What information does the vestibulospinal tract receive?

inner ear and cerebellar information

14

What is the function of the lateral spinothalamic tract?

pain and temperature

15

What are the pathways of the lateral spinothalamic tract?

1st: posterior root ganglion, 2nd: substansia gelatinosa, 3rd: posterior lateral nucleus of thalamus ->postcentral gyrus

16

What is the main neurotransmitter of the 1st order in the lateral spinothalamic tract?

substance P

17

What is syringomyelia?

fluid-filled cyst leads to cape-like (bilateral) loss of pain and temperature (effects lateral spinothalamic)

18

What is the function of the anterior spinothalamic tract?

"protopathic" is defensive to pain, temperature, and crude light touch

19

What are the pathways of the anterior spinothalamic tract?

1st: posterior root ganglion, 2nd: substansia gelatinosa, 3rd: posterior lateral nucleus of thalamus ->postcentral gyrus

20

What is the function of the dorsal columns (fasciculus cuneatus and fasiculus gracilis)?

discriminative touch (2 point), vibration, and conscious proprioception

21

What are the pathways of the dorsal columns (fasciculus cuneatus and fasiculus gracilis)?

1st: posterior root ganglion, 2nd: nucleus cuneatus and nucleus gracilis, 3rd: posterior lateral nucleus of thalamus ->postcentral gyrus

22

Where is fasiculus cuneatus located?

above T6

23

Where is fasiculus gracilis located?

below T6

24

What issues effect the dorsal columns?

diabetes mellitus, postero-lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and tabes dorsales (syphilis)

25

What is the function of the the posterior and anterior spinocerebellar tracts?

unconscious proprioception

26

What are the pathways of the posterior spinocerebellar tract?

1st: posterior root ganglion, 2nd: nucleus dorsalis (Clark's column) ascend through inferior cerebellar peduncle to cerebellum

27

What are the pathways of the anterior spinocerebellar tract?

1st: posterior root ganglion, 2nd: nucleus dorsalis (Clark's column) cross segmentally and ascend through superior cerebellar peduncle to cerebellum

28

What levels does Clark's column span?

C8-L4

29

What is the function of the spinotectal tract?

spino visual reflexes, movements of eyes and head toward stimulus

30

What are the pathways of the spinotectal tract?

1st: posterior root ganglion, 2nd: cross segmentally and ascend to superior colliculus (midbrain)

31

What is the function of the spinoreticular tract?

levels of consciouness

32

What are the pathways of the spinoreticular tract?

1st: posterior root ganglion, 2nd: ascend to nuclei of reticular formation (brainstem)

33

If the spinoreticular tract is damaged:

coma

34

What are ganglia?

groups of neuron cell bodies

35

What are peripheral nerves?

mostly myelinated axons

36

What cells are found in a posterior root ganglions?

unipolar

37

What cells are found in the retina, sensory ganglia of cochlear and vestibular nerves?

bipolar

38

What are the spinal roots of the lesser occipital nerve?

C2 and C3

39

What is the function of the lesser occipital nerve?

sensory of the posterolateral neck

40

What are the spinal roots of the greater auricular nerve?

C2 and C3

41

What is the function of the greater auricular nerve?

sensory of the ear and parotid gland

42

What are the spinal roots of the transverse cervical nerve?

C2 and C3

43

What is the function of the transverse cervical nerve?

sensory to the anterior and lateral neck

44

What are the spinal roots of the supraclavicular nerve?

C3 and C4

45

What is the function of the supraclavicular nerve?

sensory to the shoulder and anterior chest

46

What are the spinal roots of the ansa cervicalis?

C1-C4

47

What is the function of the ansa cervicalis?

motor to geniohyoid and infrahyoid muscles

48

What is the function of the segmental branches of C1-C5?

motor to neck and scalenes, levator, trap and SCM

49

What are the spinal roots of the phrenic nerve?

C3, C4, and C5

50

What is the function of the phrenic nerve?

motor to diaphragm

51

What is another name for the spinotectal tract?

Spino-Quadrigeminal system of Mott