Set 35 Topographical anatomy and endocrinology Flashcards Preview

NBCE Part 1 > Set 35 Topographical anatomy and endocrinology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Set 35 Topographical anatomy and endocrinology Deck (42):
1

What are the planes of the body?

mid-sagittal, para-sagittal, transverse, coronal/frontal

2

Mid-sagittal plane:

separates body into an equal left and right

3

Para-sagittal plane:

separates body int an unequal left and right

4

transverse plane:

separates body into superior and inferior

5

coronal/frontal plane:

separates body into anterior and posterior

6

What are the boundaries of the carotid triangle?

ant: superior belly of omohyoid, post: SCM, Sup: posterior belly of digastric

7

What are the boundaries of the submandibular triangle?

ant: anterior belly of digastric, post: posterior belly digastric, sup: lower border of mandible

8

What are the boundaries of the triangle of auscultation?

Sup: trapezius, inf: latissimus dorsi, lat: scapula, floor: rhomboid major

9

What are the boundaries of the quadrangular space?

sup: teres minor, inf: teres major: med: long head of triceps, lat: humerus

10

What are the contents of the quadrangular space?

posterior circumflex humeral artery and axillary nerve

11

What are the boundaries of the triangular space?

sup: teres minor, inf: teres major, lat: long head of triceps

12

What are the contents of the triangular space?

circumflex scapular artery

13

What is McBurney's point?

used clinically as point of tenderness in appendicitis, between ant abdominal wall and between ASIS and umbilicus

14

What are the 9 regions of the abdomen?

right hypogastric, epigastric, left hypogastric, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right iliac, hypogastric, and left iliac

15

What are the borders of the axilla?

sup: clavicle/scapula/1st rib, inf: axillary fascia, post: subscapularis, lat: humerus, med: serratus anterior and thoracic wall

16

What are the contents of the carpal tunnel?

median nerve and tendons of flexors of digits

17

What are the borders of the carpal tunnel?

flexor retinaculum and carpal bones

18

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

femoral nerve and artery, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and femoral canal

19

What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?

sup: inguinal ligament, med: adductor longus, lat: sartorius

20

Where does a direct inguinal hernia occur?

Hesselbach's triangle

21

What are the boundaries of Hesselbach's triangle?

lat: inferior epigastric artery, med: rectus abdominus, and inf: inguinal ligament

22

What causes hernias in Hesselbach's triangle?

weakness or defect in the lower abdominal wall

23

Where is the pituitary gland found?

sella turcica

24

What bone is the sella turcia found in?

sphenoid

25

What is the largest endocrine gland?

thyroid

26

What controls the thyroid?

hypothalamus and pituitary

27

What does the medulla of the adrenals secrete?

epinepherine and norepinepherine

28

What does the cortex of the adrenals secrete?

steroid hormones (glucocorticoids, mineral corticoids, adrenocorticoids) (sweat, salty, sex)

29

What regions is the pancreas in?

epigastriac and left hypochondriac

30

Exocrine have:

ducts

31

What enzymes are produced by the head of the pancreas?

amylase, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, lipase, and tripsin

32

What hormones are produced by the tail of the pancreas?

insulin from beta cells and glucagon secreted by alpha cells

33

Where is the pineal gland located?

near center of the brain between the hemispheres

34

What is produced in the pineal gland?

melatonin

35

What surrounds the entire muscle?

epimysium

36

What surrounds muscle fascicles?

perimysium

37

What surrounds muscle fibers?

endomysium

38

What surrounds the entire nerve?

epineurium

39

What surrounds nerve fascicles?

perineurium

40

What surrounds nerve fibers?

endoneurium

41

Outermost layer of the blood vessel?

tunica adventia

42

Innermost layer of the blood vessel?

tunica intima