Flashcards in Set 36 Pathology Deck (32):
What are the three types of arteriosclerosis?
Monckeberg, Obliterans, Peripheral
calcified tunica media, medium sized arteries
proliferation intima, small vessels, obliterates artery
What is an aortic aneurysm?
localized dilation of the aorta
What is a dissecting aneurysm?
longitudinal cleavage of the arterial media by a column of blood "tearing pain"
Where is the most common dissecting aneurysm?
Where does a Berry aneurysm take place?
Circle of Willis (anterior communicating)
What is a berry aneurysm?
subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage, hereditary, Circle of Willis (anterior communicating)
What is occipital throbbing headaches in the morning a sign of?
What % of people have BP of over 140/90?
What are the 4 types of HBP?
essential (idiopathic), secondary, benign, malignant
sodium retention, and ^ peripheral resistance
earliest phase of hypertension
papilledema, fibrinoid necrosis of tunica media, acute ischemia
Hypertensive heart disease:
systemic hypertension, increased work for left ventricle, causes hypertrophy and eventual failure
Patent ductus arteriosus:
congenital failure of closure between the pulmonary artery and aorta
What is the effect of rheumatic fever on the heart?
mitral and aortic valves affected, mitral valve typically involved first
Microcytic hypochormic anemia:
iron deficiency in women, childbearing years, chronic hemorrhage
pernicious: low B12 absorption, posterolateral sclerosis, loss of parietal cells (in old age)
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy:
(most common form of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy), gradual cardiac failure with hypertrophy/dilation of the heart, causes: viral myocarditis(cox sackie), hemochromatosis, chornic anemia, alcoholism, sarcoidosis, amd 3rd tri pregnancy
Hypertrophic diastolic disorder:
hyper muscular hyper-contracting heart, causes: congenital, friedreich's ataxia, glycogen storage disease, infants of diabetic mothers
Restrictive diastolic disorder:
diastole and LV filling impeded, causes: amyloidosis, radiation-induced fibrosis, found in children
Over 10 mins, rule out:
Types of Angina:
typical/stable, unstable/crescendo, prinzmetal
typical angina caused by:
activity, emotional excitement, increased cardiac work
unstable angina caused by:
close to myocardial infarction, increased frequency, prolonged duration
prinzmetal angina caused by:
occurs at rest, coronary artery spasm
What are myocardial infarctions?
ischemic heart disease
full or nearly full thickness of ventricular wall