Set 37 GI path, resp, COPDs Pg 50,51 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Set 37 GI path, resp, COPDs Pg 50,51 Deck (59):
1

Achalasia:

no sphincter control, basic

2

Plummer Vinson:

AKA Paterson-Kelly, Irish plummer, mucosal membrane across lumen, "webs in your pipes"

3

Esophageal varices:

portal hypertension

4

Gastroesophageal reflux "disease":

incompetence of lower esophageal sphincter, reflux gastric contents, Barrett's esophagus

5

Esophageal diverticula:

AKA Zenker's, outpouching of the mucosa and submucosa posteriorly, fills with food, possible regurgitation when bending or lying down

6

Mallory-Weiss:

laceration of distal esophagus and proximal stomach during vomiting, retching, or hiccups, hemorrhage- alcoholic

7

What are the two types of ulcers?

duodenal and gastric

8

Dudodenal ulcers:

most common, located at the beginning of small intestine, burning or gnawing pain, vomiting

9

Gastric ulcers:

located along the lesser curvature of the stomach, cause by heliobacter pylori and NSAIDS

10

Stomach cancer:

Occurs most frequently at the greater curvature, unexplained weight loss, unrelenting pain

11

Hepatitis:

inflammation of the liver

12

Cirrhosis:

secondary to chronic alcohol abuse, fatty liver

13

Liver cancer:

liver provides a fertile bed for the blood-borne metastases

14

Unexplained weight loss:

cancer, DM, AIDS

15

Skip lesions:

Chron's

16

Alcoholics:

Mallory-Weis

17

Ulcerative colitis:

malabsorption

18

Diverticulum:

a pouch or sac through a defect

19

Diverticulosis:

presence of diverticula, no inflammation

20

Diverticulitis:

inflammation of diverticular mucosa, severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and change in bowel habits

21

Ulcerative collitis:

mucosal ulcerations, watery stools, episodic, bloody diarrhea, fever

22

IBS:

gas and distension, pencil thin stools, episodic, constipation, and diarrhea

23

Crohn's :

aka regional enteritis, skip lesions, distal ileum, colon, chornic diarrhea, fever, and anorexia

24

Hirschsprung's:

AKA congenital megacolon, congential absence of Meissner's and Auerbach's autonomic plexus, colon, could be fatal if not diagnosed in infancy

25

Celiac disease:

AKA nontropical sprue, gluten enteropathy, celiac sprue, hereditary, chronic malabsorption causing mucosal damage, gluten wheat intolerance, "steatorrhea"

26

Tropical sprue:

mucosal abnormalities in small bowel, multiple nutritional deficiencies, triad: sore tongue, diarrhea, weight loss

27

Whipple's Disease:

small bowel infection, progressive and fatal, lymph obstruction, 30-60 M, anemia, weight loss, skin pigmentation, diarrhea, joint symptoms, severe malabsorption, abdominal pain, cough, pleuritic pain

28

Zollinger-Ellison:

aggressive peptic ulcer/tumor, can perforate through lining

29

Gardener's syndrome:

Found in the ascending colon, polyps

30

What is the most common cancer death of men and women?

lung cancer

31

What are the types of pneumonia?

bacterial, lobar, viral, Klebsiella (Friedlanders), pneumocystis carinii, and pneumococcal

32

What is pneumonia?

infection of lungs, alveolar spaces, intersititial tissues, 2 million affected, 40k-70k deaths per year in the US

33

Bacterial pneumonia:

most common cause of pneumonia, causes: consolidation, pathogen: streptococcus pneumoniae

34

Lobar pneumonia:

most common form of bacterial pneumonia

35

Viral pneumonia:

gradual onset, increased lymphocytes

36

Mycoplasmal pneumonia:

most common atypical pneumonia, AKA Eaton Agent

37

Klebsiella pneumonia:

aka Freidlanders, debilitated patients, alcholics, red currant jelly sputum

38

Pneumocystis carinii:

common in patients with AIDS

39

Pneumococcal pneumonia:

rusty sputum

40

COPDs?

increased resistance to airflow during forced expiriation

41

Chronic Bornchitis:

blue bloater, chornic cough, sputum blood-streaked, wheezing dyspnea

42

Asthma:

Curschmann's spirals, Charcot's Laden Crystals, thick sputum, and bronchial spasm

43

Small airway disease:

bronchiolitis, tobacco smoke, air pollution

44

Emphysema:

pink puffer, enlargement of air spaces, smoking, barrel chest

45

Bronchiectasis:

dead lung, irreversible, focal bronchial dilation with infection and necrosis of tissue

46

Lung cancer:

clubbing of the nails, small cell and non-small cell

47

non-small cell lung cancer:

squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma

48

small cell lung cancer:

heavy smokers, less common

49

Hand-schuller Christian syndrome:

lung and bone (lytic- typically in school), exopthalmosis and diabetes insipidus

50

Lambert-Eaton:

autoimmune secondary to oat cell carcinoma of lung

51

What are the causes of pneumoconiosis?

silicosis(silicon, TB, sandblasters), Asbestosis (Asbestosis, may cause mesothelioma), Siderosis (iron dust), Byssinosis (cotton dust), bagassosis (sugar cane dust), Stannosis (tin dust), Berylliosis (beryllium dust)

52

Atelectasis:

lung collapse (partial or complete)

53

Pneumothorax:

air in pleural cavity, spontaneous in young men

54

Pleurisy:

irritation of the pleura

55

Pleural effusion:

fluid in the pleural cavity

56

Adult respiratory distress syndrome:

alveolar capillary damage, rapid onset, life threatening, causes: infections, near-drowning, radiation therapy, shock, sepsis, burns, fractires. acute pancreaitis, hemodialysis, bypass, uremia, and diabetic ketoacidosis

57

Pulmonary TB:

in AIDs patients, some drug resistant, Ghon complex, then spreads

58

Sacroidosis:

noncaseating granulomas in many tissues/organs

59

Goodpasture's syndrome:

rapid progressive glomerularnephriti, necrotizing hemorrhagic pneumonia, basement membrane