Flashcards in Set 6 ANS and Osteology Deck (34):
What does the ANS innervate?
involuntary structures: smooth muscle, heart, and glands
What cord levels are sympathetic?
T1-L1/L2 (sometimes L3)
What is the length of preganglionic sympathetic axons?
What is the length of postganglionic sympathetic axons?
What is the preganglionic sympathetic neurotransmitter?
What is the postganglionic sympathetic neurotransmitter?
epinepherine or norepinepherine
What cord levels are parasympathetic?
S2-S4 (and CNs III, VII, IX, and X) (craniosacral)
What is the length of preganglionic parasympathetic axons?
What is the length of postganglionic parasympathetic axons?
What is the postganglionic parasympathetic neurotransmitter?
What is the preganglionic parasympathetic neurotransmitter?
When does ossification begin?
7-8 weeks (embryo)
What are the cranial sutures?
coronal, sagittal, lambdoidal, and squamous
What structures are associated with the ethmoid bone?
cribriform plate and crista galli
What structures are associated with the maxillary bone?
hard palate, palatine process, and orbital process
What structures are associated with the sphenoid bone?
sella turcica, foramen ovale, foramen rotundum, foramen lacerum, and foramen spinosum
What bones make up the orbit?
sphenoid, frontal, zygomatic, palatine, ethmoid, lacrimal, and maxillary
What are the 3 primary ossification centers on a vertebra?
body and 2 vertebral arches (lam/ped)
What are the 5 secondary ossification centers on a vertebra?
tip of spinous process, 2 transverse processes, and 2 annular ring epiphyyes
What are the 2 additional ossification centers for lumbar vertebrae?
What are the typical ribs?
What are the atypical ribs?
What are the features of the first rib?
shortest rib, costochondral joint with manubrium, scalene tubercle, and subclavian vessels
What are the features of the second rib?
thinner, twice as long as 1st rib, and serratus anterior tuberosity
What are the features of the eleventh and twelfth ribs?
short, no neck or tubercle, floating, and end capped cartilage
What are the features of the manubrium?
jugular notch (suprasternal notch) and angle of Louis (where it meets gladiolus)
What are the vertebral levels of the gladiolus?
What landmarks are marked by the Xiphoid?
diaphragm, diaphragmatic surface of the liver, and inferior border of the heart
name the level in the cervical spine: hyoid bone
name the level in the cervical spine: Cornu of thyroid
name the level in the cervical spine: body of thyroid
name the level in the cervical spine: cricoid cartilage
name the level in the cervical spine: carotid tubercle