Flashcards in Set I Deck (55):
What does the ectoderm give rise to?
all neurons and supporting cells
What does the notochord induce?
the ectoderm to become the neuroectoderm
What is the remnant of the notochord?
nucleus pulposus of the IVD
What does the ectoderm form?
the neural plate
What does the neural plate form?
the neural groove which houses the spinal cord and brain vesicles
What does the neural crest develop into?
branchial arches, PNS, schwann cells, pia and arachnoid, sacral parasympathetics, sensory and autonomic ganglia, mesencephalic nucleus of V, melanocytes, bones and CT of head, DRG, Ganglia of CN V, VII, IX, and X, and adrenal gland medulla
What does the neural plate develop into?
macroglial cells: oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, neurons of the CNS, ependymal cells, and retinal cells (MOANER)
What does the endoderm epithelium form?
the lining of the digestive tube and its associated structures
What are the parts of the primitive gut?
foregut, midgut, hindgut, and allantois
What makes up the foregut?
glands, buccal cavity, esophagus, stomach, pharyngeal pouches and pharynx
What makes up the midgut?
duodenum, jejunum, appendix, and part of the transverse colon
What makes up the hindgut?
part transverse, sigmoid and descending colon, rectum and upper anal canal
What makes up allantois?
urinary bladder, vagina, urethra, prostate, and urethral glands
What do somite cells form?
What does the sclerotome become?
vertebral column (cartilage and bone)
Where is the foramen ovale located?
between the interarterial septum
What does foramen ovale become?
Where is the ductus arteriosus located?
bypasses pulmonary trunk to arch of aorta
What does ductus arteriosus become?
Where is the dectus venosus located?
bypasses sinusoids of fetal liver
What does dectus venosus become?
becomes ligamentum venosum
Where is the umbilical vein located?
What does umbilical arteries become?
medial umbilical ligaments
What is urachus?
duct of allantois
What do glioblasts give rise to?
astrocytes and oligodendrocytes
What is the most numerous cell of the CNS?
What are astrocytes?
most numerous cells of the CNS, acts like CT, part of the BBB, form scar like tissue in injury
What do oligodendrocytes form?
What are ependymal cells?
they line the CNS, ciliated, and create a "leaky" barrier between the CSF and CNS
What are microglia?
phagocyte, neural tube cells, lesser in number
What is the function of neuroblasts?
to make neurons
What are the three types of internuncial neurons?
commissural, association, and projection
What are commissural neurons?
between the two hemispheres of the brain
What are association neurons?
between different parts of the same hemisphere
What are projection neurons?
from lower centers to cerebral cortex
What is the most common neurons of the CNS?
What are cell bodies and dendrites made of?
What are myelinated axons made of?
What does the prosencephalon give rise to?
telencephalon and diencephalon
What does the telencephalon become?
What cranial nerve is associated with the telencephalon?
What are the neural canal regions of the telencephalon?
lateral ventricles separated by septum pellucidum
What does the diencephalon become?
thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal, retina, mamillary body and posterior pituitary
What cranial nerve is associated with the diencephalon?
What are the neural canal regions of the diencephalon?
foramen of monroe (intraventicular foramen) (1st and 2nd to 3rd ventricle)
What does the mesencephalon become?
What cranial nerves are associated with the mesencephalon?
III and IV
What are the neural canal regions of the mesencephalon?
cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius
What does the rhombencephalon give rise to?
metencephalon and myencephalon
What does the metencephalon become?
Pons and cerebellum
What cranial nerves are associated with the metencephalon?
V, VI, VII, VIII
What are the neural canal regions of the metencephalon?
What does the meyencephalon become?
What cranial nerves are associated with the meyencephalon?
IX, X, XI, and XII