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Flashcards in Settlement Deck (21):

How settlements have changed over time

Initially strategic, defence against the Scots
Coal discovered in the region, in 13th century became an industrial settlement
By 20th century, coal resource ran out, no longer financially viable to extract
Became a commercial and tourist centre- 1.7 million visited in 2012


Counterurbanisation causes

Isle of Skye
Island lies much closer to the mainland than other islands, in 1995 a bridge was opened, linking it directly
People became discontented in urban life, wanted to move somewhere cleaner and quieter to bring up their children
Easier to work from home as internet access has extended
Tolls removed from the bridge in 2004


Counterurbanisation effects

Isle of Skye
30% of residents are outsiders
Concerns from locals that outsiders are taking their jobs
In last 5 years house prices have increased by £16,000
Population has grown to 9000
Main purpose of settlement was agriculture but now is tourism


Depopulation causes

Fewer jobs due to decline in agriculture eg between 2000 to 2007 over 700 agricultural jobs were lost
Popularity of second home ownership increased, young people cannot afford to live there, have to move away


Depopulation effects

Services close due to lack of demand and a smaller population eg 35 Post Offices closed in 2008, Welton School which had 9 pupils closed in 2011
Fewer jobs due to fewer services people forced to move away to look for work
High unemployment
Elderly population as young people move away looking for work


Causes of rapid growth

Population increases by 500,000 a year
Natural increase- life expectancy has increased from 41 to 70 in last 50 years
More migration as people move to locate work and a better standard of living


Effects of rapid growth

Positives- large number of workers available for jobs
- manufacturing and retail can increase as there is a larger population willing to spend money
Negatives - 37% of population suffer from lungs problems due to air pollution
- 60% of people live in slums with no sewage system
- 40% of waste is left to rot in streets, attracting rats which cause disease


Residential function

Largely housing, few services, often provide for retired people, can be known as a residential/dormitory settlement


Market centre function

Provide for the local area, often near fertile land so farmers could supply food


Administration function

County towns who employ a large number of people as civil servants


Industrial function

Provides jobs for locals people in the secondary industry, often located on coalfields and has good access to railways and canals


Strategic function

Used to physical geography of an area to protect themselves against an attack eg on top of a hill


Tourist function

Started with the arrival of railways, making it easier to access the area


Housing changes in UK

Increase in divorce rate, people require 2 houses instead of 1
People are wealthier and so can afford to move out rather than living with their parents
Ageing population, people need their houses for longer
British society has changed, meaning grandparents used to live with their parents but now they all live separately


Advantages of greenbelt

Cheaper/ faster to build on
Does not need to be built around other urban areas, matter of choice


Disadvantages of greenbelt

Development causes noise and light pollution
Farmland and recreational land lost
Destruction of animal and wildlife habitats


Advantages of brownbelt

Revives old and disused urban areas
Near to services (typically electricity), and areas of unemployment
Reduces loss of countryside which could be used to agriculture/ recreation


Disadvantages of brownbelt

Higher levels of pollution
Expensive as old building need to be made safe


Natural increase in LICs

No access to contraception
Many migrants moving into urban areas are young, at the age when fertility is at its highest
Better medical facilities in urban areas


Bahia-Sao Paulo

Push factors - infant mortality rate is 175 per 1000 population
- Very poor, suffers from drought, 32 million are chronically malnourished
- Over population has led to a shortage of jobs and shelter in the region
Pull factors - largest and wealthiest city in Brazil
- during 1950s to 1960s rapid industrialisation created a labour shortage, adverts were placed to attract workers
- car manufacturers train their workers so they are skilled eg Toyota



Push factors- cannot sustain lifestyle due to climate change, cattle are starving
Pull factors - have the skills required (braiding hair in style of Massai worriers)
- can earn a living