Flashcards in Sex Disorders (Exam 3) Deck (82):
What is sexual identity?
What is sexual orientation?
who we are attracted to romantically/sexually
What is sexual preference?
-our sexual desires
What is sex and zeitgeist?
sexuality and its expression is embedded in cultural context (ideas of normal/abnormal constantly changing)
What did Masters & Johnson study show?
brought study of sexual behavior into the lab (learned about physiology of sexual response)
What did Alfred Kinsey research show?
surveyed sexual behavior
What are the main classifications of sex disorders?
What is the former name for Gender Dysphoria?
Gender Identity Disorder (DSM 4)
What else is gender dysphoria known as?
What is gender dysphoria not the same as?
-transvestic disorder (fetishism)
What are the diagnostic features for gender dysphoria?
strong and persistent cross-gender identification
What are the prevalence rate for gender dysphoria?
difficult to estimate
What are the characteristics of gender dysphoria?
-person feels trapped in the body of the wrong sex
-takes on persona of/lives as the other gender
What causes gender dysphoria?
causes are unclear
(develops 18 months-3 years of age)
Who is gender dysphoria most common with?
What is the biological cause for gender dysphoria?
What is the psychotherapy treatment issue for gender dysphoria?
psychotherapy fails miserably (cannot be unlearned)
What is psychotherapy for GD more geared towards?
acceptance and adjustment may help
Are medical treatments more common for GD?
What is the success of sex reassignment surgery?
75% report satisfaction with new identity
What are the issues of lasting distress for sex reassignment surgery?
male-to-female often report feeling depressed and confused about new identity
Is it easier to transition male into female?
Do all cultures view transgenderism as a problem?
no (third gender)
What is the big debate about GD in the US as a diagnosis?
-not all suffer from identity
-some struggle with cultural's lack of acceptance
-argues that transgenderism is as much as a disorder as sexual orientation
What are the DSM 5 changes for GD?
incongruence between one's experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender of at least 6 months duration
What are the controversies of GD in children in the DSM 5?
-strong preference of playmates for other gender
-rejection of toys (masculine -> feminine toys)
-dislike of one's sexual anatomy
-desire for primary/secondary sex characteristics
What is the definition of paraphilias?
sexual attraction and arousal to inappropriate people, or objects
What is the paraphilia a high comorbidity with?
-substance abuse disorders
What are the diagnostic features of paraphilia?
often multiple paraphiliac patterns of arousal
What are the attractions for paraphilia?
-illegal and nonconsensual to
-violent action to
What are the difficulties of the complex category with paraphilias?
too broad of a category
-elaborate activities requiring consent
-illegal and psychologically disruptive activities with non-consenting participants
What is the diagnostic feature with pedophilic disorder?
sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children (6+ months)
Does pedophilic disorder require a person that has acted on these urges or sexual urges?
Do the fantasies have to cause marked distress to be diagnosed with pedophilic disorder?
What is the age to be diagnosed with pedophilic disorder?
How much older does the person have to be than the child/children to be diagnosed with pedophilic disorder?
5 years older
What is incest?
sexual attraction to one's own children
What is the difference between pedophilias and incest?
incestuous males may be aroused by adult women (not common for true pedophiles)
Who are pedophiles aroused by?
sexual attraction to children and desire for underage sexual activity (does not have to include intercourse)
What are the prevalence rates for pedophilia?
difficult to determine
Why are the prevalence rates for pedophilia difficult to determine?
situations where remove the consequences for those caught most will say they abused many, many more that no one knows about
What are the profiles for pedophiles and incest?
most rationalize their behavior and engage in other moral compensatory behavior (ex: members of government)
Who do pedophile and incest perpetrators target?
children who are
-will attempt to meet child's needs then perpetrate abuse
What is the etiology of pedophilia?
-history of sexual abuse
-sexual and social problems/deficits
What are the medical treatments for pedophilia?
chemical castration (used for dangerous sex offenders)
What is the efficacy of medical treatments for pedophilia?
drugs work to greatly reduce sexual desire, fantasy, arousal
What are the relapse rates for the medical treatments for pedophilia?
relapse rates are high with medication discontinuation
What are the psychosocial interventions for pedophilia?
most are behavioral
What is the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for pedophilia?
What is the recidivism rates for pedophilia?
What are the results of the Department of Justice study (2003) for pedophiles?
-5.3% rearrested for another sex crime
What did the results show for non-sex offenders released from state prisons in the Department of Justice study (2003)?
released sex offenders are 4x more likely to be rearrested for a sex crime
What is the definition of fetishistic disorder?
recurrent and intense sexual arousal from the use of nonliving objects or a highly specific focus on nongenital body part(s), as manifested by fantasies, urges, or behaviors
What are the differential diagnosis for fetishistic disorder?
-articles of female clothing used in cross-dressing (Transvestic Disorder)
-devices designed for the purpose of tactile genital stimulation (vibrator)
What is transvestic disorder?
sexual arousal with the act of cross-dressing
What are the differential diagnosis for transvestic disorder?
What is the profile of men who have transvestic disorder?
males show highly masculinized compensatory behaviors
What are the prevalence rates for fetishistic disorder?
most common in males than females
Why do people seek treatment for fetishistic disorder?
What is the psychoanalytic theory for fetishistic disorder?
-identify traumatic unconscious experience that caused the fetishism
What is castration anxiety for the psychoanalytic theory of fetishistic disorder?
replace sex with female with sex with object so that female may not castrate them
What is the learning theory (behaviorism) of fetishistic disorder?
What is the classical conditioning for fetishistic disorder?
pairing of arousal and/or orgasm in the presence of objects
What is the positive reinforcer for the operant conditioning for fetishistic disorder?
orgasm and arousal
What is the negative reinforcer for the operant conditioning for fetishistic disorder?
What is the definition of voyeuristic disorder?
act of observing an unsuspecting person who is naked, process of disrobing, or engaging in sexual activity
What are the differential diagnosis issues for voyeuristic disorder?
-going to adult club is not as arousing
-risk associated with "peeping" is necessary for arousal
What are the prevalence rates and gender diferences for voyeuristic disorder?
-most are male
-prevalence rates difficult to determine
What is the definition of exhibitionistic disorder?
exposure of one's genitals to unsuspecting stranger
What are the prevalence rates and gender differences for exhibitionistic disorder?
-late teens or early twenties
What is the definition of frotteuristic disorder?
touching and rubbing against non-consenting person
What are the prevalence rates for frotteuristic disorder?
-difficult to estimate
-depends on area
What are the gender differences for frotteuristic disorder?
15-25 year old males
Do different cultures and countries report different prevalence rates for frotteuristic disorder?
yes some report higher rates
What is the definition sexual sadism disorder?
-acts in which the psychological or physical suffering (including humiliation) of the victim and sexually exciting
-person has acted with nonconsenting person, or fantasies cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulty
What is the DSM 5 criteria for sexual sadism?
-bothered by fantasies
-acted on them
What is acting with nonconsenting parter for sexual sadism?
What is acting with consenting partner for sexual sadism?
What is the relationship between sadism and rape?
-sadism does not equal rape
-most rapists are not sadists
What is the definition of sexual masochism disorder?
act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer
What is the differential issues for sexual masochism disorder?
having fantasies does not necessarily indicate a disorder