Sex Disorders (Exam 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sex Disorders (Exam 3) Deck (82):
1

What is sexual identity?

sexual self-concept/self-understanding

2

What is sexual orientation?

who we are attracted to romantically/sexually

3

What is sexual preference?

-our sexual desires
-our choices

4

What is sex and zeitgeist?

sexuality and its expression is embedded in cultural context (ideas of normal/abnormal constantly changing)

5

What did Masters & Johnson study show?

brought study of sexual behavior into the lab (learned about physiology of sexual response)

6

What did Alfred Kinsey research show?

surveyed sexual behavior

7

What are the main classifications of sex disorders?

-sexual dysfunctions
-gender dysphoria
-paraphiliac disorders

8

What is the former name for Gender Dysphoria?

Gender Identity Disorder (DSM 4)

9

What else is gender dysphoria known as?

-transsexualism
-transgenderism

10

What is gender dysphoria not the same as?

-transvestic disorder (fetishism)
-homosexuality

11

What are the diagnostic features for gender dysphoria?

strong and persistent cross-gender identification

12

What are the prevalence rate for gender dysphoria?

difficult to estimate

13

What are the characteristics of gender dysphoria?

-person feels trapped in the body of the wrong sex

-takes on persona of/lives as the other gender

14

What causes gender dysphoria?

causes are unclear
(develops 18 months-3 years of age)

15

Who is gender dysphoria most common with?

males

16

What is the biological cause for gender dysphoria?

chromosomal explanations

17

What is the psychotherapy treatment issue for gender dysphoria?

psychotherapy fails miserably (cannot be unlearned)

18

What is psychotherapy for GD more geared towards?

acceptance and adjustment may help

19

Are medical treatments more common for GD?

yes

20

What is the success of sex reassignment surgery?

75% report satisfaction with new identity

21

What are the issues of lasting distress for sex reassignment surgery?

male-to-female often report feeling depressed and confused about new identity

22

Is it easier to transition male into female?

yes

23

Do all cultures view transgenderism as a problem?

no (third gender)

24

What is the big debate about GD in the US as a diagnosis?

-not all suffer from identity

-some struggle with cultural's lack of acceptance

-argues that transgenderism is as much as a disorder as sexual orientation

25

What are the DSM 5 changes for GD?

incongruence between one's experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender of at least 6 months duration

26

What are the controversies of GD in children in the DSM 5?

-strong preference of playmates for other gender
-rejection of toys (masculine -> feminine toys)
-dislike of one's sexual anatomy
-desire for primary/secondary sex characteristics

27

What is the definition of paraphilias?

sexual attraction and arousal to inappropriate people, or objects

28

What is the paraphilia a high comorbidity with?

-anxiety disorders
-mood disorders
-substance abuse disorders

29

What are the diagnostic features of paraphilia?

often multiple paraphiliac patterns of arousal

30

What are the attractions for paraphilia?

-illegal and nonconsensual to
-violent action to
-objects

31

What are the difficulties of the complex category with paraphilias?

too broad of a category
-"personal predictions"
-elaborate activities requiring consent
-illegal and psychologically disruptive activities with non-consenting participants

32

What is the diagnostic feature with pedophilic disorder?

sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children (6+ months)

33

Does pedophilic disorder require a person that has acted on these urges or sexual urges?

yes

34

Do the fantasies have to cause marked distress to be diagnosed with pedophilic disorder?

yes

35

What is the age to be diagnosed with pedophilic disorder?

16 years

36

How much older does the person have to be than the child/children to be diagnosed with pedophilic disorder?

5 years older

37

What is incest?

sexual attraction to one's own children

38

What is the difference between pedophilias and incest?

incestuous males may be aroused by adult women (not common for true pedophiles)

39

Who are pedophiles aroused by?

sexual attraction to children and desire for underage sexual activity (does not have to include intercourse)

40

What are the prevalence rates for pedophilia?

difficult to determine

41

Why are the prevalence rates for pedophilia difficult to determine?

situations where remove the consequences for those caught most will say they abused many, many more that no one knows about

42

What are the profiles for pedophiles and incest?

most rationalize their behavior and engage in other moral compensatory behavior (ex: members of government)

43

Who do pedophile and incest perpetrators target?

children who are
-vulnerable
-needy
-sad
-will attempt to meet child's needs then perpetrate abuse

44

What is the etiology of pedophilia?

-unclear cause
-history of sexual abuse
-sexual and social problems/deficits

45

What are the medical treatments for pedophilia?

chemical castration (used for dangerous sex offenders)

46

What is the efficacy of medical treatments for pedophilia?

drugs work to greatly reduce sexual desire, fantasy, arousal

47

What are the relapse rates for the medical treatments for pedophilia?

relapse rates are high with medication discontinuation

48

What are the psychosocial interventions for pedophilia?

most are behavioral

49

What is the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for pedophilia?

70-100% improvement

50

What is the recidivism rates for pedophilia?

high

51

What are the results of the Department of Justice study (2003) for pedophiles?

-5.3% rearrested for another sex crime

52

What did the results show for non-sex offenders released from state prisons in the Department of Justice study (2003)?

released sex offenders are 4x more likely to be rearrested for a sex crime

53

What is the definition of fetishistic disorder?

recurrent and intense sexual arousal from the use of nonliving objects or a highly specific focus on nongenital body part(s), as manifested by fantasies, urges, or behaviors

54

What are the differential diagnosis for fetishistic disorder?

-articles of female clothing used in cross-dressing (Transvestic Disorder)

-devices designed for the purpose of tactile genital stimulation (vibrator)

55

What is transvestic disorder?

sexual arousal with the act of cross-dressing

56

What are the differential diagnosis for transvestic disorder?

not
-homosexuality
-transgenderism

57

What is the profile of men who have transvestic disorder?

males show highly masculinized compensatory behaviors

58

What are the prevalence rates for fetishistic disorder?

most common in males than females

59

Why do people seek treatment for fetishistic disorder?

-guilt
-anxiety
-depression
-relationship problems

60

What is the psychoanalytic theory for fetishistic disorder?

-identify traumatic unconscious experience that caused the fetishism
-castration anxiety

61

What is castration anxiety for the psychoanalytic theory of fetishistic disorder?

replace sex with female with sex with object so that female may not castrate them

62

What is the learning theory (behaviorism) of fetishistic disorder?

-classical conditioning
-operant conditioning

63

What is the classical conditioning for fetishistic disorder?

pairing of arousal and/or orgasm in the presence of objects

64

What is the positive reinforcer for the operant conditioning for fetishistic disorder?

orgasm and arousal

65

What is the negative reinforcer for the operant conditioning for fetishistic disorder?

seeking object

66

What is the definition of voyeuristic disorder?

act of observing an unsuspecting person who is naked, process of disrobing, or engaging in sexual activity

67

What are the differential diagnosis issues for voyeuristic disorder?

-going to adult club is not as arousing

-risk associated with "peeping" is necessary for arousal

68

What are the prevalence rates and gender diferences for voyeuristic disorder?

-most are male
-prevalence rates difficult to determine

69

What is the definition of exhibitionistic disorder?

exposure of one's genitals to unsuspecting stranger

70

What are the prevalence rates and gender differences for exhibitionistic disorder?

-caucasian males
-late teens or early twenties
-50% married

71

What is the definition of frotteuristic disorder?

touching and rubbing against non-consenting person

72

What are the prevalence rates for frotteuristic disorder?

-difficult to estimate
-depends on area

73

What are the gender differences for frotteuristic disorder?

15-25 year old males

74

Do different cultures and countries report different prevalence rates for frotteuristic disorder?

yes some report higher rates

75

What is the definition sexual sadism disorder?

-acts in which the psychological or physical suffering (including humiliation) of the victim and sexually exciting

-person has acted with nonconsenting person, or fantasies cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulty

76

What is the DSM 5 criteria for sexual sadism?

-bothered by fantasies
-acted on them

77

What is acting with nonconsenting parter for sexual sadism?

illegal

78

What is acting with consenting partner for sexual sadism?

raises issues

79

What is the relationship between sadism and rape?

-sadism does not equal rape
-most rapists are not sadists

80

What is the definition of sexual masochism disorder?

act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer

81

What is the differential issues for sexual masochism disorder?

having fantasies does not necessarily indicate a disorder

82

What is the DSM 5 criteria to be diagnosed with sexual masochism?

must engage in behavior or be bothered by the fantasies doing this