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Nutrition Final Exam New Material > Sheep > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sheep Deck (55):
1

Thinner fiber

Wool

2

Original sheep had _____

Hair

3

When did wool animals first appear?

Spain in the middle ages

4

Most common meat-producing breed

Dorper

5

Most common dairy breed

Manchega

6

Most common meat and wool breed

South African Mutton Merino

7

Most common wool breed

Australian Merino

8

What are the sheep-raising systems?

Fall lambs
Early spring lambs
Late spring lambs
Accelerated lambing
Feeder lambs

9

What is the largest single cost in sheep farming?

Nutrition

10

What controls sheep production?

Efficiency of converting feed resources into products

11

Most sheep are produced in _____ environments

Semi-arid

12

Limits the performance of sheep, especially in lactation and gestation

Energy

13

Generally sufficient for sheep energy needs

Pasture and hay

14

Require energy supplement (cereals)

Finishing lambs (esp. feedlot-type system)

15

_____ of protein is more critical than _____

Quantity, quality

16

_____ pastures provide adequate protein for sheep

Green

17

Must be supplemented in the winter

Vitamin A

18

Must be supplemented for animals in confinement

Vitamin D

19

Normal conditions of ewes

2-4 (75% @ 2)

20

Increase BW prior to breeding, ovulation rate, and lambing rate

Flushing

21

Ewes on good quality pasture prior to breeding or supplemental feeding w/grains or pellets

Flushing

22

Do not respond as well to flushing

Fat ewes

23

By how much does flushing increase lambing rate?

10-20%

24

Feed under normal conditions close to maintenance and based on pasture w/minimal supplementation

First 15 weeks of gestation

25

70% fetal growth

Last 6 weeks of gestation

26

How much higher are the needs of the ewe during lactation?

2-3x higher

27

When does milk production peak?

Around 3 weeks

28

How much milk does a ewe produce per day?

3-6 lbs.

29

What should be fed for spring lambing?

Pasture, grain supplemented

30

What should be fed for fall lambing?

Forage and grain supplement

31

When can lambs be weaned?

45-60 days

32

How early can artificially reared lambs be weaned?

30 days

33

What nutritious supplement do recently weaned lambs need?

18-19% CP, high energy

34

When do lambs usually enter feedlots for finishing?

5-6mo old @ 60-90 lbs

35

Sheep production is dictated by the cost of _____

Maintaining ewes

36

When are replacement ewes normally bred for the first time?

So they can lamb at 1 or 2 years old

37

Bred at 7-8mo

1-year old lambing

38

1-year old lambing ewes are bred at ___% of final BW

65-75%

39

Do rams or yearlings require more feed per day?

Yearlings

40

More common in finishing lambs and associated with feed and environmental stress

Nutrition-related problems

41

Overeating or pulpy kidney disease

Enterotoxemia

42

Caused by toxins from Clostridium perfringens type D

Enterotoxemia

43

Affects larger, fast-gaining lambs

Enterotoxemia

44

Sudden death, loss of appetite, abdominal discomfort (kicking at belly and arching back), profuse diarrhea

Enterotoxemia

45

How do you treat enterotoxemia?

C and D antitoxin SQ, vit. B1 IM, fluids IV or SQ

46

Common in rams and wethers in drylot

Urinary calculli

47

Depression, off feed, humped up appearance, distended abdomen

Urinary calculli

48

How can you prevent urinary calculli?

Maintain Ca:P, clean cool water/good water intake

49

Protrusion of rectal tissue outside the anus related to genetics, dusty pelleted high-roughage diets, or short docked tails

Rectal prolabse

50

Important biological role as a constituent of Vit B12

Cobalt

51

Lethargy, reduced appetite, poor wool quality or open fleece, small size/poor condition

Cobalt deficiency

52

Common when sheep graze pastures high in iron

Copper deficiency

53

Hind limb weakness, poor wool quality, anemia, poor bone mineralization

Copper deficiency

54

Excess of copper in diet

Copper poisoning

55

Feeding grain treated with propionic acid may increase risk of ______

White muscle disease