Shit - Behavioural Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Shit - Behavioural Deck (46):
1

Measurement for case-control

OR = ad/bc
= have it and risk * not and don't / have it and don't * don't have it but do

2

Measurement for cohort

RR = (a/a+b)/ (c/c+d)
= risk of disease when you have exposure / risk of disease when you don't have exposure

3

Phases of clinical trials

I = safe (healthy ppl)
II = work - efficacy, AE, dose
III = good/better - common AE
IV = stay - rare/LT AE

4

sensitivity =

= 1 - FN

5

specificity =

= 1 - FP

6

AR =

AR = (a/a+b) - (c/c+d)
= risk of disease when you have exposure - risk of disease when you don't have exposure
= (RR - R unexposed)/RR

7

RRR =

RRR = 1-RR

8

ARR =

ARR = (c/c+d) - (a/a+b)
= risk of disease when you don't have exposure - risk of disease when you have exposure

9

NNT

NNT = 1/ARR

10

NNH

NNH = 1/AR

11

Precision

= reliability
decrease with random errors

12

Accuracy

= validity
decrease with systematic errors

13

Berkson bias vs. healthy worker bias

Berkson = study population from hospital is sicker than general population

HWB = study population is healthier than the general population

14

lead-time vs latent period

lead time = find earlier so think it increases survival. Decrease effect with "back-end" survival measures

Latent period = time between intervention and effect. Measuring too soon could prevent you from seeing the result because it hasn't happened yet

15

SD %s

1SD = 68%
2SD = 95%
3DS = 99.7%

16

Positive skew =

Tail on positive side; Mean > median

17

Nevative skew =

Tail on negative side; Mean

18

Power =

1-beta
= correctly rejecting the null

Increase power (decrease beta) via:
- increased "n"
- increased expected effect size
- increase precision of measurement

19

Type I error

Falsely rejecting the null (FP error)
aka saw a difference when there is none

20

Type II error

Failing to reject a false null (FN error)
aka didn't see a difference when there really is one

21

CI:

If CI includes there numbers, then fail to reject null:

Mean difference: 0
OR or RR: 1
Overlap between 2 groups' CIs

22

T-test

comparing 2 groups, numerical data

23

ANOVA

Comparing ≥3 groups, numerical data

24

Chi-squared

Comparing ≥2 groups, categorical data (i.e. ethnicity)

25

Quarternary prevention

Identify patients at risk for unnecessary treatments

26

Medicare vs medicaid

medicare = old, disabled, ESRD
Medicaid = very low income

27

Parts of medicare:

A = hospital
B = basic clinic stuff
C = A+B via external company
D = drugs

28

Therapeutic privilege

Withhold patient information if it will severely harm them or undermine their decision-making capacity
i.e. woman tells you she will kill herself if she has breast cancer because she watched her mom die from it you find a lump during exploratory surgery and take it out without permission

29

Transfusion on minors of jahovas parents?

YES

30

Power of attorney hierarchy

pt picks someone
pt can revoke this even if they are not competent

31

Surrogate decision makers

spouse > adult child > parents > adult siblings > other relative

32

APGAR

Appearance (colour)
Pulse (100)
Grimace (reflex to stimulus)
Activity (tone)
Respiration (quality)

33

Object permanence age

9 months

34

Positive likelihood ratio

sens/1-spec

35

Negative likelihood ratio

1-sens/spec

36

Parameters affected by disease prevalence

PPV and NPV

ex: higher prevalence = more TP = higher PPV
higher prevalence = less TN = lower NPV

37

most resistant measure of central tendency to outliers

mode

38

Least vs greatest financial risk methods of doctor reimbursement

Least risk = fee for service: get paid for every test, so order more tests

Highest risk = capitation: get paid a set amount per patient and insure the costs for tests, so more primary/secondary care to prevent diseases and catch them early to avoid expensive tests and surgeries

39

Most preventable cause of disease and death in the USA

SMOKING!

40

MCC cancer in women vs MCCD cancer in women

MCC = breast > lung > colon
MCCD = lung > breast > colon

41

matching is used to decrease what type of bias:

confounding

42

attrition bias is a type of what form of bias

Selection bias
(anything that causes a systematic difference between the groups terms of treatment response or prognosis

43

Crossover study design:

case control where you switch the groups half way

Limitation = effect from one treatment carrying over. Limit this with a washout period

44

Ecological study

Use populations, not people

45

Power =

= the study's ability to find a difference when one does exist
= 1-beta
(so beta = the probability of finding no difference when there is one i.e. failing to reject a false null)

46

Hawthorne effect =

Participants altering their behaviour when they know they are being studied