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Flashcards in Short Answer Deck (34):

What were the three steps a region went through to become a state?

Under direct control of the Feds.
Once it hits 5k residents, it become a territory with a legislature and a representative to congress.
Upon 60k residents, it can write a constitution and be admitted to the union as a state.


Between what two qualities did the constitutional convention seek a balance?

Liberty and order


How did James Madison win approval for the constitution in Virginia?

He promised amendments for a bill of rights in the first session of congress.


Give three of the six principles of government found in the constitution.

1. Popular sovereignty
2. Republican ideology
3. Limited government
4. Separation of powers
5. Checks and balances
6. Federalism


What were the two most controversial provisions of the proposed Ordinance of 1784?

The creation of 10 new states and the banning of slavery in the northwest territory.


Why was Massachusetts able to continue supporting an established church years after passing of the first amendment?

The Supreme Court did not extend restrictions between the Bill of Rights to the states until the 20th century.


What was the most important result of Jay's Treaty?

It adverted war with Great Britain.


Why was John Adam's decision to pursue peace with France a politically brave act?

His party, the federalists, preferred a war-like attitude toward France. By pursuing peace, he alienated part of his party and hurt his chances for reelection.


What did Hamilton offer the south to win southern support for assumption of state debts by the federal government?

He offered to kill the national capital in the south.


What is the origin of the phrase, "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute."

Originated during America's quasi war with France. As a reaction, to French demands for political bribes in the XYZ Affair.


Name two characteristics of Oregon that attracted settlers to that region.

Abundant land, fertile soil, mild climate


Why did Tyler annex Texas through a joint resolution of congress rather than a treaty in the Senate?

For a treaty, Tyler needed a two-thirds majority which he could not mudster. For a joint resolution, he needed only a simple majority of each house.


Put the following in chronological order:
Gadsden Purchase, Maine boundary settlement, Oregon boundary settlement

1. Maine boundary settlement
2. Oregon boundary settlement
3. Gadsden Purchase


What were the four main campaigns of the Mexican War?

Northern Mexico, New Mexico, California, and central Mexico.


What view of the status of slavery in territories was expressed in the Wilmot Proviso, the Calhoun Resolutions, and popular soveriegnty?

The Wilmot Proviso prohibited territory in the territories acquired from Mexico
The Calhoun resolutions protected slavery in all territories.
Popular sovereignty allowed settlers to decide the issue for themselves.


What three events during the period of May 21-25, 1856 focused natural attention on Kansas?

1. Sacking of Lawrence, Kansas
2. Sumner Brooks Episode
3. Pottawatomie Massacre


Which was the first southern state to secede and when did it secede?

South Carolina, December 20th, 1860


Why did Stephen Douglas break with president James Buchanan?

Buchanan tried to force a pro-slavery constitution on Kansas, although the majority of settlers there were anti-slavery. Douglas opposed this action as a violation of popular soveriegnty.


What was the single most important piece of abolitionist propaganda?

"Uncle Tom's Cabin" - Harriet Beecher Stowe


How did the fact that so many farm hands went off to fight actually help the growth of agriculture in the North?

The shortage of help forced farmers to use machines such as McCormick's reaper which proved more efficient than human labor.


Why did Jefferson Davis replace Joseph Johnston as commander of the Confederate forces in Georgia?

David feared that Johnston's cautious retreats would result in the loss of Atlanta.


What was the main goal of Southern diplomacy during the Civil War?

To persuade a European power preferably Great Britain to recognize the independence of the Confederacy.


The capture of what city was the key to the Mississippi River campaign?

Vicksburg, Mississippi


In what three ways were the series of Confederate victories in the East from First Manassas to Chancellorsville important to the Southern cause?

1. Prevented the union from capturing Richmond.
2. Raised southern morale while lowering northern morale.
3. Helped increase the possibility of Britain intervening on the southern side


Why did some Southerners consider the Civil War to be a Second American Revolution?

They saw themselves like the patriots of the War for Independence as fighting against an oppressive, centralized authority.


How did the First Battle of Manassas affect Northern and Southern morale?

The north was demoralized and the south was relieved and confident.


How did the South seek to maintain control of the Mississippi River?

By building fortifications along the river such as those in Columbus, Kentucky and Vicksburg, Mississippi.


What were the four border states at the beginning of the war?

Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware.


Why were the casualties in the eastern campaigns of 1864-65 harder on Lee's army than on Grant's even though Grant's losses were greater?

Grant had sufficient man power to replace the losses, Lee did not.


Name the dictators who rose to power in Italy and the Soviet Union in the 1920s and in Germany in the 1930s

Italy - Benito Mussolini
Germany - Adolf Hitler
Soviet Union - Joseph Stalin


Who was one of the leading spokesmen for the isolationist America First Committees

Charles Lindbergh


In what region of France did the landings in Operation Overlord take place?



Who was the military commander of each of the two prongs of the Allied attack in the Pacific war?

General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester Nimitz


At their conference at Casablanca, where did FDR and Churchill agree to open another front against the Axis?