Shoulder, Arm, and Elbow Flashcards Preview

Structure and Function Test 1 > Shoulder, Arm, and Elbow > Flashcards

Flashcards in Shoulder, Arm, and Elbow Deck (91):
1

The bones of the proximal-most region of the appendicular skeleton of the upper limb include the

Clavicle, scapula, and humerus

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The only one of the upper limb bones which articulates directly with the axial skeleton

Clavicle

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There are three major synovial joints of the shoulder region, and free movement at all three joints is required for the shoulder to have full range of motion. What are the three joints?

1.) Sternoclavicular joint (SC joint)
2.) Acromioclavicular joint (AC joint)
3.) Glenohumeral joint

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Articulates medially with the manubrium of the sternum as the SC joint

Clavicle

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Articulates laterally with the acromion proccess of the scapula at the AC joint

Clavicle

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What are the two clavicular articulations?

1.) medially w/ manubrium of sternum (SC joint)
2.) Laterally w/ acromion process of scapula (AC joint)

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The "ball and socket" glenohumeral joint is formed by the articulation of the

Rounded head of humerus with shallow glenoid fossa of scapula

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The sternoclavicular (SC) joint is supported by the

SC ligament, Costoclavicular ligament, Joint capsule, and Subclavius muscle

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Ankylosis of the SC joint severely limits

Elevation of the arm

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The sternoclavicular joint movements are elevation/depression of the arm during flexion/extension and abduction/adduction movements at the

Glenohumeral joint

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The acromioclavicular joint is supported by the

Coracoclavicular ligament and the joint capsule

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Dislocated by direct forces such as contact with the ground

-referred to as "shoulder separation"

AC joint

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The movements at the AC joint are

Rotation assisting movements of the shoulder

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The glenohumeral joint is supported bytthe musculotendinous rotator cuff and the

Glenohumeral ligaments and Glenoid labrum joint capsule

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At the glenohumeral joint, range of motion limited by pain is caused by

Bursitis or rotator cuff teninitis

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At the Glenohumeral joint, range of motion limited by dislocation is caused by

Excessive abduction, extendion, and lateral rotation movements

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The movements at the glenohumeral joint are

Abduction/adduction, flexion/extension, medial/lateral rotation, and circumduction

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The joints at the pectoral region generally move at the ame time and are coordinated with movements of the

Scapula

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This coordinated movement is referred to as

Scapulohumeral rythm

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During elevation of the arm, the scapulohumeral movement occurs in a

2:1 ratio of glenohumeral:scapula, SC, and AC joints

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The muscles of the shoulder serve to stabilize the shoulder and act as the prime movers of the scapula and humerus at the

Glenohumeral joint

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The primary support for the glenohumeral joint

Rotator cuff muscles

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What are the muscles of the rotator cuff?

"SITS"

Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, and Subscapularis

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Provides superior support of the glenohumeral joint

Supraspinatus

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Provides posterior support of the glenohumeral joint

Infraspinatus and Teres Mino

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Provides anterior support of the glenohumeral joint

Subscapularis

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What are the prime movers responsible for PROTRACTION of the scapula?

Serratus anterior and pectoralis minor

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What are the prime movers responsible for RETRACTION of the scapula?

Rhomboids and middle trapezius fibers

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What are the prime movers responsible for ELEVATION of the scapula?

Levator scapulae, Rhomboids, and superior trapezius fibers

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What are the prime movers responsible for DEPRESSION of the scapula?

Pectoralis minor and inferior trapezius fibers

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What are the prime movers responsible for UPWARD ROTATION of the scapula?

Serratus anterior and the superior and inferior trapezius fibers

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What are the prime movers responsible for DOWNWARD ROTATION of the scapula?

Levator scapulae and rhomboids

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What are the prime movers responsible for FLEXION of the humerus?

Pectoralis major, anterior deltoid fibers, arm muscles, biceps brachii, and coracobrachialis

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What are the prime movers responsible for EXTENSION of the humerus?

Posterior deltoid fibers, Latissimus Dorsi, Teres major, and the long head of the triceps brachii

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What are the prime movers responsible for ABDUCTION of the humerus?

Deltoid and supraspinatus

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What are the prime movers responsible for ADDUCTION of the humerus?

Pectoralis major, Latissimus dorsi, deltoid, and Teres major

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What are the prime movers responsible for MEDIAL ROTATION of the humerus?

Pectoralis major, Latissimus Dorsi, Deltoid, Teres major, Anterior deltoid fibers, and Subscapularis

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What are the prime movers responsible for LATERAL ROTATION of the humerus?

Posterior deltoid fibers, infraspinatus, and teres minor

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Supply the shoulder with blood and anastomose with each other providing collateral circulation to the upper
limb

Branches form axillary artery and subclavian artery

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The primary collateral roots are

Suprascapular and dorsal scapular (subclavius) to circumflex scapular (sxillary)

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The only bone of the arm, and it articulates proximally with the glenohumeral joint and distally with the bones of the forearm at the elbow joint

Humerus

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Fractures of the humerus typically occur proximally at the

Surgical neck, along the spiral groove, and distally at the medial superconylar ridge

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Fracture at the surgical neck can result in

Axillary nerve trauma

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Fracture along the spiral groove can result in

Radial nerve trauma

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Fracture distally at the medial supracondylar ridge can result in

Medial nerve trauma

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The distal humerus articulates with the proximal portions of the

Radius and Ulna

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Which part of the humerus contacts the head of the radius?

Capitulum

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Captured by the trochlear notch of the ulna

Trochlea of humerus

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In addition, the radius and ulna articulate with each other at the

Radioulnar joints

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What are the supporting structures of the elbow?

Radial and ulnar collateral ligaments and the annulr ligament

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At the elbow, what dislocations occur for the
1.) ulna
2.) radius

1.) Dislocates posteriorly
2.) Dislocates inferiorly

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Pain and inflammation at the elbow due to overuse of forearm muscles

Epicondylitis

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What movements occur at the elbow?

Flexion and extension

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What are the supporting structures of the proximal radioulnar joint?

Radial and ulnar collateral ligaments and the annulr ligament

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At the radioulnar joint, what dislocations occur for the
1.) ulna
2.) radius

1.) Dislocates posteriorly
2.) Dislocates inferiorly

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What movements occur at the radioulnar joint?

Pronation and supination

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In general, the muscles of the arm occupy the anterior or posterior surfaces of the humerus and are separated, anterior from posterior, by

-creates anterior and posterior arm compartments

Medial and lateral intermuscular septa

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The muscles within a given compartment all have the same general function, are innervated by the same nerve and receive their blood supply via branches of the

Same artery

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What is the function of the muscles of the anterior arm compartment?

Flexion at glenohumeral and elbow joints

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Innervates the muscles of the anterior arm compartment

Musculocutaneous nerve

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The muscles of the anterior arm compartment receive their blood supply from the

Brachial artery

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The muscles of the posterior arm compartment function in

Extension at the glenohumeral and elbow joints

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The muscles of the posterior arm compartment are innervated by the

Radial Nerve

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The muscles of the posterior arm compartment receive their blood supply from the

Deep brachial artery

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Which arm muscles function in FLEXION at the glenohumeral joint?

Biceps brachii and coracobrachialis

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Which arm muscles function in EXTENSION at the glenohumeral joint

Triceps brachii- long head

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Which arm muscles function in FLEXION at the elbow?

Biceps Brachii and Brachialis

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Which arm muscles function in EXTENSION at the elbow?

Triceps brachii- Long, lateral, and medial heads

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Which arm muscles function in SUPINATION at the elbow

Biceps Brachii

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This depression on the anterior aspect of the elbow has a number of important neurovascular structures passing through it

Cubital fossa

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In the superficial fascia, cubital veins form anastomotic connections between the

-common site of venipuncture

Cephalic and Basilic veins

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Deep to the superficial fascia, the cubital fossa is "roofed over" by the

Bicipital aponeurosis

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Protects the deeper median nerve and brachial artery

Bicipital aponeurosis

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Within the cubital fossa the brachial artery typically divides into its two terminal branches, the

Radial and Ulnar branches

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Crosses through the cubital fossa

Radial nerve

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Crosses posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus

Ulnar nerve

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In a fracture of the middle third of the clavicle (most common), what would happen to the
1.) Lateral portion
2.) Medial portion

1.) Would be pulled inferiorly
2.) Would be displaced superiorly

78

When the middle third of the clavicle is fractured, the pectoralis major will pull the proximal humerus medially. This may result in an overlap of the fractured clavicular ends. Which portion would be superior?

Medial portion

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Shoulder separation occur at the

AC joint

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Shoulder dislocations occur at the

Glenohumeral joint

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Fluid filled sac that acts like a synovial membrane and lubricates and smooths the motion of highly active joints

Bursa sacs

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Deepens the socket to hold the humeral head

-where labral tears occur

Glenoid labrum

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A torn rotator cuff is primarily a tear in the

-patients won't be able to ABduct their arm the 15 degrees required to get the deltoids involved

Supraspinatus tendon

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Supraspinatus tendon passes inferior to the

Acromion process

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The glenohumeral joint is weakest

-where it gets no rotator cuff support

Inferiorly

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In a glenohumeral dislocation, the head of the humerus moves

Inferior and then anterior

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The scapulohumeral rythm essentially says that for every three degrees of motion

2 degrees are from glenohumeral joint

1 degree is from scapular movement

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In an X-ray, radial tells us what is

Lateral

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In an X-ray, ulnar tells us what is

Medial

90

Common dislocation caused by parents swinging their kids by the arms

Radial dislocation

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If the spiral groove is injured, which nerve is in danger?

Radial nerve

Decks in Structure and Function Test 1 Class (61):