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Flashcards in SI LEC - Antigens Deck (46):
1

macromolecules capable of triggering an adaptive immune response by inducing antibodies or sensitized T cells in an immunocompetent host.



IMMUNOGENS-

2

substance that reacts with ab or sensitized T cells but may not be able to evoke an immune response

ANTIGENS-

3

reasons why we respond to immunogens (3)

Nature of immunogen itself
Genetic coding of MHC molecules that must combine w/ an immunogen before T cells are able to respond
Immunogen processing and presentation

4

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE IMMUNE RESPONSE


Age
Overall health
Dose
Route of inoculation
Genetic predisposition

5

TRAITS OF IMMUNOGENS

The ability of immunogens to stimulate a host response depends on the ff:
Molecular size
Chemical composition and molecular complexity
Foreigness
Ability to be processed and presented with MHC molecules

6


Immunogen must have a MW of at least




10,000 daltons.

7

The greater the MW, the ___ the immunogenecity.

more potent

8

MW of the best immunogens

Over 100 000 daltons

9

are best immunogens based on complexity

Proteins and polysaccharides

10

which is more immunogenic, CHON or CHO

CHONS

11

EX of nonimmunogenic based on complexity (3)

synthetic polymers
pure nucleic acids
lipids

12

usual form of CHO

CHO are usually in the form of glycoproteins (Rh and Lewis ags), glycolipids (ABH antigens)

13

Ex of glycoproteins

Rh and Lewis Ags

14

Ex of glycolipids

ABH Ag

15

Pure nucleic acids and lipids must be attached first to a _____ to be immunogenic

carrier molecule

16

are used for artificial heart valves, elbow replacement, and other medical appliances.

Synthetic polymers

17

_______ better immunogen for an animal than is material for from a related animal.

Plant proteins

18

Any lymphocyte that will ______ will be normally deleted,

react to self Ags

19

All ____ are considered immunogenic

non self

20

how are Ags processed

enzymatic digestion

21

Types of epitope

repeating copies or differing specificities
linear/sequential
conformational

22

Molecular shapes or configurations that are recognized by B or T cells

EPITOPE

23

Small part of an immunogen that is actually recognized in the immune response

EPITOPE

24

w/ epitope of 6-15 aa

PROTEINS

25

PROTEINS : w/ epitope of how many aa

6-15

26

recognized both linear and conformational epitopes present on the surface of an immunogen.


B cells

27

recognized epitope only as a part of the complex formed with MHC on the surface of antigen-presenting cells

T cells

28

B cells recognized both ___ (what epitope types) present on the surface of an immunogen.

linear and conformational epitopes

29

T cells recognized epitope only as ______ on the surface of antigen-presenting cells

a part of the complex formed with MHC

30

Non immunogenic small substances that need to be complexed to larger molecules to be able to stimulate immune response


HAPTENS

31

Hapten is able to react to abs, even w/o a carrier molecule.
TRUE or FALSE

TRUE

32

Has a single determinant and cannot form cross-links w/ more than one antibody molecule that are necessary for precipitation or agglutination.

HAPTENS

33

Why haptens cannot form crosslinks

Has a single determinant

34

type of antigen
belong to the host, no immune response

Autoantigens

35

type of antigen
from other members of the host’s species,
eg blood ags, ags in tx transplantation, can stimulate immune response

Alloantigens

36

type of antigen
from other species
eg plant ag, animal ags, microbial ags

heteroantigens

37

type of antigen
heteroags that exist in unrelated plants or animals but are either identical or closely-related in structure so that ab to one can cross react w/ ag of the other.

heterophile Ag

38

types of antigen

autoAg
alloAg
heteroAg
heterophile Ag

39

Substance administered w/ an immunogen that increases the immune response


adjuvant

40

Acts by producing a local inflammatory response that attracts a large no. of immune cells to the injection site.

adjuvant

41

Acts by prolonging the existence of immunogens in the area, increasing the effective size of the immunogen, and increasing the no. of macrophages involved in Ag processing

adjuvant

42


Freunds’ Complete Adjuvants consists of (3)



mineral oil, emulsifier, and killed mycobacteria (0.5 mg/mL)

43

are the only approved adjuvant for clinical use in US.

Aluminum salts

44

disadv of Freunds Complete Adjuvants

Freunds’ CA: produces granuloma, or large tissue scars

45

adjuvant not used in humans, for research only

Freunds Complete Adjuvant

46

Aluminum salt: is incorporated in ___ vaccines

Hepa B

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