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Flashcards in SI LEC - History Deck (58):
1

when did immunology become an independent subject

1971, International Conference of
Immunology, in USA

2

3 periods in the history of immunology

Experiential Immunology period
Experimental Immunology period
Modern Immunology period

3

period of immunology
the 17th century- the middle of 19th century

experiential period

4

  is a disease that has a high mortality rate or a calamity with widespread and serious consequences for its victims

Plague

5

who introduced variolation in england from turkey

Lady mary wortley montague

6

process of inoculation of small pox to produce immunity

Variolation:

7

who first introduced variolated

chinese medical practitioners

8

He discovered that cowpox vaccination protected against smallpox in 1796 based on the practice of the chinese

edward jenner, english physician

9

A preparation of microbial antigen, often combined with adjuvants, that is administered to individuals to induce protective immunity against microbial infections.

Vaccine:

10

A general term for immunization against infectious diseases, orginally derived from immunization against smallpox which uses the Vaccinia virus.

Vaccination:

11

: inorganic or organic chemicals, macromolecules or entire cells of certain killed bacteria, which enhance the immune response to an antigen

Adjuvants

12

In ancient times,many serious infection diseases,such as smallpox, plague and cholera etc. caused innumerable people dead.
what period

experiential period

13

molecular structure of 2 antigens are almost similar
one antigen will be able to react w/ the same antibody

cross-reactivity/cross reaction

14

types of vaccines (8)
KATVECHS

killed, attenuated, toxoid, subunit, conjugate, experimental, valence, heterotypic

15

type of vaccine
vaccines that are pathogens of other animals that either do not cause disease or cause mild disease in the organism being treated

heterotypic/heterologous/jennerian

16

type of vaccine
not the whole organism but jus the antigenic parts

subunit

17

type of vaccine
weakened organism

attenuated aG

18

type of vaccine
vaccine + another substance

conjugated

19

what period
the middle of 19th century-the middle of 20th century

Experimental Immunology period

20

1st to introduce active immunity

Robert Koch

21

isolated and cultured bacteria successfully

Robert Koch

22

according to him,
----Infectious diseases were caused
by pathogens

Pasteur

23

he produced an anti-cholera live-attenuated vaccine
(old culture of Chicken V.cholera)

Louis Pasteur

24

what substance was used by Louis Pasteur to produced an anti-cholera live-attenuated vaccine

old culture of Chicken V.cholera

25

type of active immunity
Antigen was artificially made

artificial active immunity

26

what kind of immunity was discovered by Pasteur

artificial active immunity

27


The form of adaptive immunity that is induced by exposure to a foreign antigen and in which the immunized individual plays an active role in responding to the antigen.

Active immunity:

28

type of immunity that was discovered In the late eighties of 19th century

passive immunity

29

who introduced passive immunity

roux and yersin

30

---Diphtheria was caused by exotoxin produced by C.diphtheriae
The discovery of diphtheriae antitoxin and bactericidins

roux and yersin

31


----diphtheriae antitoxin was applied in treatment of Diphtheria
---- Artificial passive immunity

Von Behring and Kitasato

32

The form of immunity to an antigen that is established in one individual by transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from another individual who is immune to that antigen.

Passive immunity:

33


----Study on antigenic determinant (epitope)
----ABO blood type

Landsteiner

34


----Ab is gamma globulin

Tiselius and Kabat

35


----Molecular structure of Ab:
4 peptides

Porter and Edelmen

36

who found natural immune tolerance

Owen

37

who set up animal model of acquired immune tolerance in newborn period.

Medawar

38

a single organism composed of genetically distinct cells. This can result in male and female organs, two different blood types

Chimera:

39

a group cells that stem from identical

Clone:

40

The clones of lymphocyte that can recognize self-Ags will be destroyed or learn to tolerance to self Ags (forbidden clones) at the early stage of their development--- is termed as??

clone deletion

41

The clones of lymphocytes that can be interacted with corresponding Ag (by Ag receptors ) can be selected and lead to activation, proliferation , produce Ab and specific memory cells---is termed as???

clone selection

42

cell mediated immunity proponent

metchnikoff

43

HMI proponent

ehrlich

44

Ab in serum could promote the phagocytosis of phagocytic cells
---- proponent

Wright & Dauglas

45

person?----Anaphylaxis

Richet and Portier

46

person?----Hypersensitivity
In 1903,Arthus----Arthus phenomenon
In 1907,Donath and Landsteiner
----Autoantibody cause autoimmune disease

Pirquet and Shick

47

person?----Arthus phenomenon

arthus

48

person
----Autoantibody cause autoimmune disease

Donath and Landsteiner

49

potentially life threatening, severe allergic reaction

Anaphylaxis:

50

: form of immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity resulting in erythema, edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis observed in rabbits after injection of antigen to which the animal has already been sensitized and for which it has specific IgG antibodies.

Arthus phenomenon

51

what time period
(the middle of 20th century-the 21th century)

Modern Immunology period

52


----Chicken without bursa can not produce Ab
----B cell

Glick Fabricius and Xianguang Zhang

53

In 1961,???
----cell mediated immunity of new born mice whose thymus were taken away are defective
----T cell

Good and Miller

54

Study on monoclonal antibody

Kohler and Milstein

55

Study on clinical immunology (4)

Organ transplantation
Autoimmune diseases
Tumor immunology
Infectious diseases

56

Study on applied immunology (4)

Preparation of monoclonal and genetic engineering antibody
Preparation of recombinant cytokines
Study on DNA vaccine
Study on treatment with immune cells

57

New techniques of modern immunology and application (4)

Separation of immune cells
Protein analysis technique
Phage display technique
Preparation of new animal model

58

introduced MHC

Jean Dauset

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