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Flashcards in SI LEC - Scientists Deck (27):
1

discovered remarkable relationship between exposure to cowpox & immunity to smallpox.

EDWARD JENNER

2

: accidently found out that older cultures would not cause a disease in chickens. .

LOUIS PASTEUR

3

He subsequently injected more virulent organisms & had no effect on birds previously exposed to older cultures

LOUIS PASTEUR

4

the first attenuated vaccines was discovered & later on he applied the principle of attenuation to the prevention of rabies.

LOUIS PASTEUR

5

He called this process of making the organism avirulent,

attenuation

6

He injected material from cowpox postules to the skin of person who had not smallpox. He called this .

procedure vaccination

7

: introduced the term phagocytosis after observing foreign objects in a transparent starfish larvae surrounded & destroyed by motile cells.



ELLIE METCHNIKOFF

8

He hypothesized that immunity to disease was based on the action of these scavenger cells.

ELLIE METCHNIKOFF

9

demonstrated that for an antibody to lyse or destroy bacteria, a second thermolabile factor or series of nonspecific protein substance found in normal human serum causes this phenomenon. He called this nonspecific substance, complement.

JULES BORDET

10

develop diphtheria & tetanus antitoxins neutralizing diphtheria & tetanus toxins.

EMIL VON BEHRING & SHISABURO KITASATO:

11

Foundation of serotherapy.

EMIL VON BEHRING & SHISABURO KITASATO

12

postulated the cellular origin of antibodies.

PAUL EHRLICH:

13

He said that cells have side chain projections used not only for nutrition but also programmed to release a specific protein during an encounter with an antigen.

PAUL EHRLICH:

14

He called this phenomenon key in lock interaction. He formulated the side chain theory of antibody formation.

PAUL EHRLICH:

15

provided evidence that an immune response could be damaging as well as beneficial by showing anaphylaxis as immunologic reaction.

CHARLES RICHET & PAUL PORTIER:

16

They worked on ways of desentisizing animals to the sting of Actinaria, a jellyfish.

CHARLES RICHET & PAUL PORTIER:

17

They were trying to alleviate or suppress allergic of hypersensitivity reaction by injecting the same antigen at increasing doses, instead anaphylaxis developed after the second injection of the same antigen or same glycerin extract obtained from tentacles of the jellyfish.

CHARLES RICHET & PAUL PORTIER:

18

linked the two theories by showing that humoral & cellular factors were involved in a normal immune response. This observation gave him the idea that

ALMONTH WRIGHT:

19

He observed that humoral or circulating factors called opsonins coated bacteria rendering them susceptible to phagocytosis.

ALMONTH WRIGHT:

20

serum factors were formed in response to exposure to foreign substances. He called these serum factors, antibodies.

ALMONTH WRIGHT:

21

in addition to his discovery of delayed hypersensitivity reactions, introduced the immune phenomenon he studied – that immunity could be transferred from one animal to the other by means of serum.

CLEMENS VON PIRQUET:

22

formulated the genetic theory of tumor transplantation

CLARENCE LITTLE:

23

developed the quantitative precipitin assay, ushering in the era of quantitative immunochemistry.

MICHAEL HEIDELBERGER:

24

introduced adjuvants

JULES FREUND:

25

introduced fluorescence labeling of antibodies

ALBERT COONS:

26

provided evidence for identity of the gene for blood group antigens with one gene for tumor resistance in mouse.

PETER GORER:

27

provided evidence that antibodies are gamma globulins.

ARNE TISELIUS & ELVIN KABAT:

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